Monday, August 19, 2019
Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access Classification Pharmacologically, the commonly abused hallucinogenic substances may be divided into two major groups. The indolealkylamines, including d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) bear a structural resemblance to the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). The phenylethylamines, including mescaline and the phenylisopropylamines such as 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM, "STP"), are structurally related to dopamine, norepinephrine, and the amphetamines (Gelenberg, Bassuk, Schoonover 1991). Doses Usual doses range from about 25 micrograms to more than 300 micrograms. LSD is known to posses a low level of toxicity; the effective dose is about 50 micrograms while the lethal dose is about 14,000 micrograms. These figures provide a therapeutic ratio of 280, making the drug a remarkably nonlethal compound (Julien 2001). Pharmacology d-Lysergic acid diethylamide is a synthetic hallucinogen derived from an extract of the ergot fungus. The drug is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It is usually ingested as part of a pill or dissolved on a piece of paper (Gelenberg, Bassuk, Schoonover 1991). LSD is often added to other substances, such as the back of stamps, or sugar cubes, which can be handled more easily (Julien 2001). Following oral administration, the drug is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to body tissues. Only small amounts are detected in the brain, however (Gelenberg, Bassuk, Schoonover 1991). It also crosses the placenta. The largest amounts of LSD in the body are found in the liver, where the drug is metabolized be... ...emoved from the reaction mixture and can be re-employed in other conversions (Making LSD in the Laboratory, 2005). References Gelenberg, A.J., & Bassuk, E.L., & Schoonover, S.C. (1991). The Practitioner's Guide to Psychoactive Drugs. 3rd. Ed. (pp. 288, 290). New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Julien, R. M. (2001). A Primer of Drug Action. (p. 234). New York: Worth Publishers. Stockley. (2002). Stockley's Drug Interactions. (pp. 906-907). Great Britain: The Bath Press. Strang, M. (2004). LSD and Psilocybin- Serotonergic Hallucinogens: Route of access, brain metabolism, and neurochemical effects. February 24 2005, from The Shroomery. http://www.shroomery.org/index/par/25277. (2005). Making LSD in the Laboratory. February 28 2005, from Temple of the Screaming Electron. http://www.totse.com/en/drugs/psychedelics/lablsd.html
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Defeat of Many by One In The MoorÃ¢â¬â¢s Last Sigh, Salman Rushdie uses the complex and changing character of the Moor to represent a complex and changing image of India. By making the eclectic family history of the Da-Gama Zogoiby family the central theme in the first two parts of the novel, Rushdie portrays India as a culturally and religiously pluralistic society. This pluralistic society is layered by violence caused by the corruption of multiplicity by various characters and the threat of Hindu fundamentalism. As pluralism is defeated by fascism in Part Three of the novel, the nature of the violence changes drastically and is symbolized by the MoorÃ¢â¬â¢s significant character change: Ã¢â¬Å"The Moor whose tragedy-the tragedy of multiplicity destroyed by singularity, the defeat of Many by One-had been the sequences united principleÃ¢â¬ (Rushdie 408). The defeat of pluralism is not only the uniting principle in AuroraÃ¢â¬â¢s sequence of paintings, but also in RushdieÃ¢â¬â¢s The MoorÃ¢â¬â ¢s Last Sigh. RushdieÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of India is essentially the battle between multiplicity and singularity and the consequential violence that has plagued IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s history. In the first two parts of the novel, Rushdie portrays the positive aspects of pluralism through the story of the Da-Gama Zogoiby family. The MoorÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather, Camoens describes an ideal pluralistic world: A free country Belle, above religion because secular, above class because socialist, above caste because enlightened, above hatred because loving, above vengeance because forgiving, above tribe because unifying, above language because many tongued, above colour because multi-coloured, above poverty because ... ...lent singular vision, he ends rather optimistically. The Moor, at the end of his story and at the end of an explosion of violence lays his head down in hope for a better time. In the distance he sees the Alhambra, the MoorsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"triumphant masterpiece and their last redoubtÃ¢â¬ (Rushdie 433). Rushdie uses this beautiful metaphor of the Alhambra, Ã¢â¬Å"that monument of lost possibility that nevertheless has gone on standingÃ¢â¬ to convey the message that pluralism still has a fighting chance in India. (Rushdie 433) Rushdie suggests that just like the Moorish masterpiece withstood a fierce oppositional force and the test of time, so will India and its uniquely resilient and diverse society. Works Cited Embree, Ainslee. Utopias in Conflict. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990. Rushdie, Salman. The MoorÃ¢â¬â¢s Last Sigh. New York: Vintage International, 1995.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
When focusing explicitly on the topic of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly ever-evolving status, one would constantly perceive it to be a working progress of the woman and the rise of her independence. So, why when analysing both, Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ do these roles of the most prominent women seem to be in reverse? The history of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy branches outwards from the past, therefore enforcing the idea of a woman, living in an earlier period, to exist under high demands of fulfilling the traditional expressive position. Yet with regards to ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s tale, why is it that Alisoun is able to possess characteristics that are both a controversy for the 14th century during in which it was written, and to a certain extent, this era momentarily? On the other hand, the 1950s Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ harbours a heroine who remains true to her decadeÃ¢â¬â¢s basic notion on how both a woman and a wife should persist to be, consequently presenting Linda Loman as a stock character. With a distance of 6 centuries, is there an abstruse intention to why both the female protagonists are depicted in an unusual fashion, and totally out of the ordinary when its context is taken into account, or, is this simply the writersÃ¢â¬â¢ approach to manifest some sort of a response, whether it be mere shock, indulgent laughter, or utter appreciation? The titles alone contain an instantaneous conception on how both women are portrayed concurrently. Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢ obtains an immediate link to Alisoun, unlike Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ which simply refers to Willy Loman and includes no innuendo of his wife Linda. AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership of the tale is reinforced by the noun Ã¢â¬ËWifeÃ¢â¬â¢ as a direct association to her, suggesting that she is the focal point of the tale. But is she? The prologue is definitely in her possession with her martial history being the key plot; however the tale on the other hand clearly centres the knight as the protagonist, consequently endorsing the audience to make an initial judgment on AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s character as one which is strong enough to acquire her own title. Maybe ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose was to make his eponymous hero a female to either stagger the audience by the pragmatical meaning of this whereby such power and eminence is handed to a female character, or to purely ridicule a woman with any supremacy, and in effect, is symbolic since it contains the intention of formulating humour for an audience existing in a 14th century world. With this reasoning in mind, the common use of the noun Ã¢â¬ËWifeÃ¢â¬â¢ would then become a more abstract version of this since, in essence, this is merely an idea of her control and alliance to the city. Perhaps the title Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢ can be decoded then as a euphemism that solely associates with AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬ËHousbandes at chirche dore I have had five-Ã¢â¬Ë This has been translated as a misrepresentation of her being promiscuous which uses hyperbole to reinforce the concept and also assists in the beginning of a caricature adaptation of a woman who is unlike most others. On the contrary, since Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ purely refers to Willy, this would consequently support how dominating the male gender had been in the early 50s. In relation to Linda however, the absence of any insinuation of her in the title holds a vital insight of how she is portrayed through the play itself. This maintains the persistent imagery of Linda conserving her private role as a housewife, and to an extent, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s constant positive conscience, Willy Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËI suddenly couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t drive anymore. Ã¢â¬â¢ Linda Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËMaybe it was the steering wheel again. Ã¢â¬â¢ The adverb Ã¢â¬ËMaybeÃ¢â¬â¢ certainly exhibits some indecision with LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s response indicating that even though she may not entirely know what Willy requires, she knows it is necessary for her to provide a reasonable answer that will help ease the blame off Willy, facilitating the assumption of LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty to her husband, even during the worst of times. Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s intention of having no connotation to Linda in the title could be indeed for the purpose of supporting the idea of her selflessness compared to WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s egotistical behaviour. This theory of LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s ignored compassion is also demonstrated when Willy commits suicide. Ã¢â¬ËI canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it. Ã¢â¬â¢ This simple sentence is most commonly used with the verb Ã¢â¬Ëdo not/donÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬â¢, but, semantically, Miller permits Linda to unusually phrase this with the modal auxiliary verb and the nagator Ã¢â¬ËcanÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬â¢ to express her rejection towards comprehending his refusal of living life fully. Perhaps the importance of this approach was to portray just how vulnerable and helpless not just Linda, but the rest of the female population was in the 50s. As if to say it had nothing to do with the capacity of the female brain but the knowledge of where that woman should remain to be. The title is therefore a description of LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and depicts just how much Linda is taken for granted. In the earliest stage directions of Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢, the lexis used to describe Linda Loman all relate to the semantic field of household items and the act of obeying a person: Ã¢â¬ËstirredÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëiron repressionÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËadmiresÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËlisteningÃ¢â¬â¢ Semantically, theses lexicons relate to the play itself. The stative adverb Ã¢â¬ËadmireÃ¢â¬â¢ implies Linda may not feel worthy of Willy therefore she can only have a high regard for him and not the ability to put herself in his position. According to this then, Linda could be summarized as a character that has a low opinion of herself. The comparison to household items proves to be crucial since it could be categorized as an exposition, introducing the audience to LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent characteristic. A more modern audience, and in particular contemporary women, would argue that this was very demeaning since it implies this was all they are known for. Throughout the description of the Wife from the General prologue, the audience obtains a direct inkling of her character. Ã¢â¬ËHousbandes at chirche dore she hadde fiveÃ¢â¬â¢ This sentence delivers an eye opener as to what AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s social status is. Since only the elite managed to marry inside of a church, this would then imply that from the age of 12, Alisoun has supposedly not ascended the ladder of social mobility. The syntax of this however creates some hesitancy to admit the true number of her failed marriages. Given that she leaves the actual amount Ã¢â¬ËfiveÃ¢â¬â¢ till last reinforces the idea of her true emotions towards them. The similarity between Linda and Alisoun then would be that aside from the fact that one woman has had considerably more partners than the other: Alisoun is still in search of love, remaining to be ever willing to find her true match. This is further proven with the syntax from the quotation. As Ã¢â¬ËHousbandesÃ¢â¬â¢ is the first word in the sentence, it indicates she finds pleasure in having a husband because of the urgency to articulate the concrete noun Ã¢â¬ËHousbandesÃ¢â¬â¢, despite the fact that they were all failures. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s crime is that she loves her only husband far too much. It is evident that in spite of her devotion to Willy, he still ignores her and takes her for granted, Linda- Ã¢â¬ËTake an aspirin. Should I get you an aspirin? ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll soothe you. Ã¢â¬â¢ Willy- Ã¢â¬ËI was driving along, you understand? Ã¢â¬â¢ Here it is visible that Willy does overlook his wife completely by his sudden change in topicality and the flouting of the GriceÃ¢â¬â¢s maxim of relevance. Perhaps this is due to the way he perceives Linda, and the minimal respect he has for her. This is further evident with his tag question, Ã¢â¬Ëyou understand? Unlike Robin LakoffÃ¢â¬â¢s female language theory, this does not abide by her rules. In her opinion these tag questions imply a need for some support rather than a critical remark. However it is obvious that Willy does not require any backing since he is the most dominant speaker. The pragmatics of this statement show how much of a low disregard he has on LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s capability of understanding such a simple concep t as driving, consequently suggesting he does, in actual fact, take his loving wife for granted. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions here differ depending on the gender perspective. Since this is one of many occurrences where Willy insults LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, this provides evidence of her complete devotion to her husband. Perhaps this mirrors the reality of the 1950sÃ¢â¬â¢ female audience therefore MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s motive in creating such a character was simply to please the existing female population at that time and nothing more. From a male point of view following the same thesis of art imitating life, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to have both control and authority over Linda would have also been MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s method in satisfying the male audience. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech also indicates some reluctance of being abrupt towards her husband. Ã¢â¬ËTake an aspirin. Should I get you an aspirin? Ã¢â¬â¢ This reads to be an almost repaired statement, strengthening the notion of her delicacy when interacting with her husband. Depending on the stage direction as to how this is supposed to be acted out, another contention could be that LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s true being slipped out for a moment. The unusual abruptness of the first sentence followed by the modal verb Ã¢â¬ËShouldÃ¢â¬â¢ may imply how Linda must always remain to be conscious of the words she speaks even if she truthfully isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that. This could possibly have been MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s subtle approach in exposing just how human a woman truly is. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s character is one that appears to be careful in every action she undertakes, Alisoun on the other hand gives the impression of being self-sufficient in her decisions. Ã¢â¬ËWhat that he mente therby, I kan nat seyn; But that I axe, why the fifthe man Was non housbonde to the Samaritan? How manye mighte she have in marriage? Yet herde I nevere tellen in myn age Upon this nombre diffinicioun. Ã¢â¬â¢ In a Russian Formalist literary opinion, her attitude here in this verse would suggest she is blasphemous and very defensive of her deeds. By allowing an illiterate female commoner challenge basic Christian belief, Chaucer invites an astonishing controversial angle on reality. An audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction to this from the 14th century would be of great annoyance towards Alisoun since she occupies no immense background to express such a powerful opinion. According to the first line Ã¢â¬ËWhat that he mente therby, I kan nat seynÃ¢â¬â¢ this also suggests that her judgment is based on a more personal outlook rather than facts. From my own 21st century perspective following the same Russian Formalist fundamentals, this verse stands to be an opinion and nothing more. AlisounÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis may not have changed but the reaction from the audience would have instead. In actual fact, her intrusive manner would have been one that would have been valued despite of her gender. Regardless of the fact that both texts are fictional, their mediums exhibit various conclusions: since Ã¢â¬ËThe Wife of BathÃ¢â¬â¢ is classed as poetry there are some limitations as to what could have been written. It would appear that ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s main objective was to entertain the listener rather than being factual. This is evident due to the consistent structure of rhyming couplets and alliteration. Somme seyde women loven best richesse, Somme seyde honour, somme seyde jolinesse,Ã¢â¬â¢ There is a distinctive pattern here which works throughout the rest of the tale. Seeing as though there are no breaks or clear stanzas in the poem, the use of parallelism suggests that a list is about to form without abiding by the usual formation of a list. The rhyming, alliteratio n and sibilance Ã¢â¬ËSomme seydeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËrichnesseÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËjolinesseÃ¢â¬â¢, adds emphasis on the ideas explored throughout the tale in a way which amuses an audiences of any age. Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ has none of these restrictions, whereby no rules or patterns are needed to be followed. Miller is able to write as he wishes, therefore could it be said that this enables him to write according to the truth? As an audience we are only ever permitted to listen and believe the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. This limits exactly how much we should class as valid and thus acts as a confinement of plays in general. The importance of this does not only rest on how valid these texts are historically. In context to the essay question, the mediums affect the way the theme of power is portrayed. With the aid of humour, Chaucer is able to manipulate how the audience perceives the unusual occurrence of a woman who owns such authority. This comedy enables the audience to interpret the dubious topics mentioned in the prologue half -heartedly therefore suggesting that the text canÃ¢â¬â¢t completely be taken seriously. Conversely Ã¢â¬ËDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬â¢ does not include many entertaining scenes to conceal the control Willy has over Linda and consequently Miller sanctions the audience into producing their own take on the subjects referred to all through the play. Sometimes a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s basic actions can be justified by her experiences. Alisoun has the ability to convey such intense concepts because of her endless incidents in the past. Her characterÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation appears to be licentious which consequently enables an audience to reign in on their annoyance of her. Chaucer has portrayed Alisoun in a way which can only be described as caricature. What should be taken into consideration is that perhaps ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s overall intention when creating such an exaggerated character like the wife was to humour the audience with the ridicule of a woman with such freedom. Or perhaps it was to produce a character like no other that owns the ability to question the acts of society and their standard beliefs. Out of the entire Ã¢â¬ËCanterbury TalesÃ¢â¬â¢ there are only two women who possess the ability to tell their story: the Prioress and the Wife. Since the Prioress already maintains the basics of a 14th century woman graciously, Alisoun is possibly ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s technique in inventing a woman who stands for everything the ordinary woman of that time would not and as a result, portrays life on each end of the pole for all types of audiences to experience. LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s character owns a front which, even after the analysis, maintains the idea of an obedient wife. However, the initial idea of her abiding by this characteristic has evidently changed. Yes, she still sticks by with her husband, even after affairs and a lack of care and attention, but is she not a stronger woman in spite of all this? Alisoun has the ability to end her marriage as soon as it goes wrong as if to say she is still searching for her Ã¢â¬Ëideal manÃ¢â¬â¢ and so self-sufficient that she refuses to lead a miserable life, yet Linda remains to be as courteous as ever even after the marital problems. For a 1950s audience, Miller birthed a female icon, a woman who exists in a realist play regarding the common aspiration of the attempts at conquering the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican DreamÃ¢â¬â¢. All in all, the roles which appeared to be in reverse now seem to walk side by side along the path of independence. Six centuries apart, diverse situations at hand but both individualistically vigorous women ready to undertake what life has planned for the both of them.
Friday, August 16, 2019
http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/562734/Stalinism http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Doctor_Zhivago Stalinism in Russia The novel Doctor Zhivago, although it contains passages written in the 1910s and 1920s, was not completed until 1956. The novel was submitted to the literary journal Novy Mir. However, the editors declined Pasternak's novel because of its embedded rejection of socialist realism. The author, much like Zhivago in the story, showed more concern for the interests of individuals than for the welfare of the social order.Soviet censors interpreted some passages as anti-communist and more idealistic. They were also infuriated by Pasternak's understated disparagement of Stalinism and his references to the Gulag. In 1957, an Italian publisher, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, organized for the novel to be smuggled out of the Soviet Union by Isaiah Berlin. Much to the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s dismay, Feltrinelli simultaneously published copies in both Russian and in Italian. Deman d for Doctor Zhivago was so great Feltrinelli was able to authorize translation rights into eighteen different languages long before the novel's publication.The Communist Party of Italy debarred Feltrinelli from their association in retribution for his role in the publication of a novel they felt was vital for communism. On the other hand, the novel topped international bestseller lists, the British MI6 and the American CIA commenced an operation to ensure Doctor Zhivago was correctly submitted to the Nobel Committee. It was known that a Nobel Prize for Boris Pasternak would seriously damage the international integrity of the Soviet Union.In result to this, British and American operatives seized and photographed a manuscript of the novel and privately printed a small number of books in the Russian language. These were submitted to the Nobel Committee's surprised judges just ahead of the deadline. The fictional story, Doctor Zhivago, is about a physician and poet named Doctor Yuri Zh ivago, who lives during the first half of the 20th century in Russia. In this story, Yuri ZhivagoÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Yevgraf, a Russian general, relays the story of his brother Yuri to a teen girl, Tonya Komarovskaya.Yevgraf believes Tonya is YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, who was inadvertently abandoned when she was a small child. He first asks Tonya if she can recall anything about her mother. When she said she could not remember he tries to convince her by starting at the beginning of YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s story. To understand YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s life tale and how it relates to Stalinism, one must know the major themes of the novel; loneliness, companionship, individuality, community, corruption and revolution. YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s story begins when he was a small child, his mother died and he had been taken in by the Gromekos, who were family friends.With the loss of his mother, Yuri, must have felt alone until he began to develop a relationship with the GromekoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, Tonya. As Yuri and Tonya g rew up, it was anticipated they would marry. When they finally married, Yuri needed to leave to help the wounded soldiers in the Russian Civil War. There he met Laura, a woman who had volunteered for the war so she could find her husband, Pasha. She became a nurse, assisting Yuri with the injured. They began to build a relationship during their time together, though it started friendly, it soon became romantic.About the time they were going to be leaving for home they made a promise to each other, promising that they will not lie about their Ã¢â¬Å"friendship. Ã¢â¬ The film shows a vase of sunflowers as Laura and the soldiers leave Zhivago behind. These flowers are a symbol of the relationship Yuri had with Laura; the flowers were in full bloom when Laura was there but when she departed they began to wilt, like YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. When YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s arrived at the GromekoÃ¢â¬â¢s house, also his home, there were other people living in the large house.These people were told to l ive there by the Soviet government because the house was too big for just the Gromeko family. During his time back in his Ã¢â¬Å"ownÃ¢â¬ home he is asked, by a Soviet official, to go in secret to the home of a dying man. Zhivago goes and takes a look at the man and determines the cause of his illness. He says the cause of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s illness is something they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have in Russia, starvation. When he says this to the official he says it in such a way that shows the communist are either blind for they donÃ¢â¬â¢t care. Zhivago is an idealist and therefore does not like the Communists and in return his behavior is noticed.One night when Yuri comes home he sees that Tonya had put out the fire in their home because they did not have enough fuel. To solve their fuel problems he goes outside and takes wood from a nearby fence. Watching from a distance is Yevgraf, who decides not to arrest his brother even though he had arrested better men for lesser crimes. Instead he foll ows his brother back to his home. He comes into the house and this is how Yuri meets his brother. Before Yevgraf leaves he tells Yuri, the government does not like his poetry because it shows individuality. Yevgraff warns them, telling them they should leave Moscow.Yuri and his family get on a train to leave Moscow and go to Varykino. The people on the train are all poor and quite but one of the men was very vocal in his disapproval of revolution. Before the train left a Communist soldier was telling the people on the train how they were on the train and that the work they would be asked to do was all voluntary. The vocal man shouted at him saying it was a lie. Later in the train ride, they come to a stop as StrelnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s train comes past theirs. Strelikov, or Pasha, was an idealist before the Civil War, but he soon became one of the communists.Yuri get off of his train while they are stopped and he runs through the wood and comes across the Strelnikov train. The Red Army sold iers take him to Pasha, where the two men finally meet. Yuri informs Pasha that Laura is still alive and how it was that he and Laura had met. He also said she was in Yuriatin. What neither of the two men knew was that Laura was being watched. The people that were watching, the White Army, Laura were hoping Strelnikov would come go home to his wife, they wanted to kill him. Pasha was killed when he was found just outside of Yuriatin.Victor Kamarovsky found Laura and Yuri in YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s old home, he told them he had a train that would take them out of Russia where they would be safe. At first neither Yuri would not go because he did not want to leave Russia and Laura would not leave without Yuri. When Victor told Yuri what happened to Pasha Yuri decided he would go for LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s sake. Laura and her daughter took the same slay as Victor but there was no room for Yuri. He told Laura he would follow on there slay and he would meet up at the train. Before they leave Yuri gave Laur a the Balalaika. This was a sign that Yuri had no intentions of leaving Russia.On the train Laura admits to Victor she is caring YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s baby. This child is later inadvertently abandoned by Victor. The Russian government was corrupted; on one hand they had the Bolsheviks who were communist and tried to Ã¢â¬Å"sugar coatÃ¢â¬ the political and economical faults, such as, starvation, poverty and homelessness. While on the other hand, there was the White Army, who were a democratic party wanting to reveal the corruption for what it was. This split in the government led to the Russian Civil War. In the end the Bolsheviks won the war and took hold of the government.When power was given to the Bolsheviks they ruled with a method created by Joseph Stalin. Stalinism is the technique used by Joseph Stalin, who was part of the Soviet Communist Party and was the state leader from 1929 until he died in 1953. Stalinism is accompanied with an establishment of terror and totalitarian rule. In a party dominated by intellectuals and rhetoricians, Stalin stood for an ideal approach to revolution, barren of ideological sentiment. Once power was given to the Bolshevik, the party leadership happily left Stalin the tasks involving the boring details of party and state administration.YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s story relays what life was like under StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s communist rule. The solitude the people of Russia felt, the need for individuality and the corruption they saw in the government; these were the things the communists were trying to hide. The communist wanted the people to see companionship with their community and that they needed the revolution. PasternakÃ¢â¬â¢s novel was an idealistÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view of the Russian government and was everything the Bolsheviks did not want the public to read. It showed how the Bolsheviks were trying to control the emotions and personalities of the people.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The definition of ethnic literature Ã¢â¬Å"is literature like any other, except that it contains ethnic references. Ã¢â¬ (Reilly p. 2). Another definition of ethnic literature is when there is a literature work that contain religious beliefs, racial issues, linguistics, or cultural heritage. In another word, ethnic literature is the literary work that includes particular culture, beliefs, or linguistics distinction. Postcolonial literary theory draws attention in the issue of cultural difference emerging in the society. One of the issues which may often appear during the class discussion is hybridity. It seems that people who have been faced by the fact that they are living in a Ã¢â¬Ëhybrid worldÃ¢â¬â¢ tend to be confused by their real status. They realize for their interest, but they can not avoid the possibility becoming Ã¢â¬Ëin betweenÃ¢â¬â¢. Although , they are included into one part, the native part, but on the other hand they can not deny the deep feeling to be pleasant considering themselves different with the other. There is a kind of more value they have compared with their surround, and they think it is worthy to be kept. Of course, this feeling comes into their mind by some reasons. There must be an additional value added into their original culture. The additional value may be in the form of a new ideology, belief or view which are brought by the dominating. The dominated rarely conscious with the impact. They usually only feel that it is a natural process which become the impact of daily social interaction they are engaged in. Another issue which emerges in postcolonial discussion is about dominated-dominating one. We can not expect who actually take the role as Ã¢â¬ËdominatingÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËdominatedÃ¢â¬â¢. The practice may turn over, the dominated may become the dominating in the same time toward different object, vice versa. We are also introduced by Ã¢â¬ËOthernessÃ¢â¬â¢ theory. It makes someone consider that she or he are different from the other, and other people is not the same with her or him. Gadis Tangsi tells a story about a girl life, namely Teyi. She is a Javanese girl who grew up in the Javanese tradition. She lives with his parents and sibling in tangsi area. She was taught to become an obedient girl by her mother with many limitations as a girl. She helps her mother to sell fried bananas every day. Teyi finds herself limited by some rules which are considered as the right rules for her mother. She even does not know how Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢ or how to be Ã¢â¬ËlovedÃ¢â¬â¢ by a man. She was taught to be a polite woman. She finally finds who she is when she is introduced to Putri Parasi by Ndara Tuan Kapten Sarjubehi who has helped her. That is the beginning of her new experience to recognize a new world, the world that she has never imagined before. Putri Parasi teaches her everything to be Ã¢â¬Ëa good ladyÃ¢â¬â¢. Putri Parasi likes Teyi for her politeness. She more likes Teyi after being saved when her disease comes immediately. Putri Parasi expects to teach her how to behave well. She even teaches Teyi to speak Dutch. Teyi starts to be able to read and write. Putri Parasi really wants to prepare her to be taken to Surakarta Keraton and introduced her to a man who will be married with her. She plans to make Teyi deserve to have a husband from Keraton families. In the novel Gadis Tangsi written by Suparto Brata, we can see some unexpected phenomenon occur. It makes me realize that actually there are still many things covered even by what Javanese people considered as Ã¢â¬Ëbudaya adiluhungÃ¢â¬â¢. The word Ã¢â¬ËpolitenessÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËhospitalityÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdignityÃ¢â¬â¢ which come into people mind when they heard about Javanese culture become blur after they read this novel. Javanese woman who is considered as an obedient woman and become a mercy for whom takes her as a wife may be surprised by what Suparto tells about Teyi and Dumilah. He brings them in this novel as representative of Javanese woman character, in different point of view. However, the story about them, for me, is far from the stereotype of common Javanese women (may be just a few). The feeling of Ã¢â¬Ëin betweenÃ¢â¬â¢ seem to be experienced by Teyi. She starts to know about how the way the higher status people behave since she meets Putri Parasi. Teyi realizes that her life style is quite different from her, and she is glad when she knows that Putri Parasi does not mind introducing this new culture to her. From this intentional interaction, after she is taught how to behave like Ã¢â¬Ëputri bangsawanÃ¢â¬â¢, Teyi starts to consider she has a chance to be the same with them. Even she lives with her parents, she starts to consider that she is better than them. She has been raised from the lower part. She has more power than the people in the house. The very obvious impact of this teaching actually appears when Teyi has been left by Putri Parasi. After she passed away, Teyi become independent from the influence of Putri Parasi. Although, there are still some traces of her teaching inside Teyi which reflect in the way she behaves. She seems take the dominating position over her husband, Sapardal. Sapardal feeling about his lower position when they have been married becomes the cause of the divorce. Only two days of marriage, and Teyi considers that she has a right to sue divorce, while Sapardal can only keep silent without any comment. In this relationship, Sapardal as a man who actually considered as Ã¢â¬Ëthe dominatingÃ¢â¬â¢ take the role as Ã¢â¬Ëthe dominatedÃ¢â¬â¢. He does not feel on the same level with Teyi. He admits that he has no power compared to Teyi. He even has no courage to touch her in their first night of marriage. Here, we can see the role between man and woman has shifted. Brata seems to show us that the role of people in the society is like running on the moving wheel. The dominating and dominated are only a symbol of someone position, which also can be shifted based on where we are standing. Sapardal may fail in maintaining his position as superior in front of Teyi. The cultural change also appears in this novel. Sexual intercourse is not considered as a sacral any longer for almost all the women in this novel. During my reading, I wonder if I read Indonesian culture literary work, especially belong to Javanese one. However, Brata wrote the novel using the Indonesian condition in the past, in the colonial occupation. In this situation, it is not easy to determine which one who still hold the original value since the influence of other ideology come into the life in that simple way. The force of a new ideology input is not directly felt in this novel. The indigenous people enjoy the acculturation between the dominated and the dominating. It also happens in the shifting of the way they see sexual intercourse actually is. What we call as a taboo becomes commonly conducted by the people. Teyi is defined as a free woman, even she has been married and becomes a wife of Sapardal, and she breaks the rule by having intercourse with Ndara Tuan Kapten Sarjubehi. It seems that she wants to take a revenge to Dumilah who is considered had cheated her by having romantic affair with her master. Sapardal can not do anything. He has failed to become a good husband. This thinking is from his own side. When we look at this phenomenon, again, Teyi proves that she has had a power over a man from her own society. She starts to have a right to consider a man like Sapardal is not at the same level with her. However, in my opinion it will not happen if Sapardal never has the way of thinking. Actually, he has thought that she is great and different from the other woman in his environment before they are married. That makes he has no courage to touch her at their first night. It also makes Teyi feels not being regarding or respecting as a wife. She thinks that Sapardal has no desire toward her, and she thinks that it is better to ask divorce. What a short way of thinking! I found that Teyi has put a wrong way of thinking about what Putri Parasi had taught to her. It seems that she does not consider marriage as a sacral relationship any longer. Ã¢â¬ËLoveÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship has been considered as a Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship when we have passion to have sex with our couple. Is that so simple? That is the way Teyi think about love basically. It is shown also when she does not mind to have sex with her ex-master, Ndara Tuan Kapten Sarjubehi, and then she starts to love someone else, Ndara Mas Kus. There is no any guilty feeling. Finally, we can conclude that there are three aspect of postcolonial reading for Gadis Tangsi has been discussed above. First, hybridity appears when Teyi finds herself has involved and being a part of Putri ParasiÃ¢â¬â¢s society, Keraton environment since she has been able to behave and speak like her, so she considers that she is a part of Putri community. While she has that feeling, she still can not avoid other people consideration about her who is only becoming a servant and will not become like them. Second, dominating feeling toward Sapardal comes into her mind. There is dominating-dominated in shifting model between them. It seems a denial for a man who usually considered as the dominating one, while Teyi proves that it can be shifted. Last, Ã¢â¬ËOthernessÃ¢â¬â¢ theory also emerges in this novel. After having taught to have attitude and behave like Putri Parasi model, Teyi finally considers herself different with other woman in her society. It appears in the way she treats Dumilah who is her old friend. She thinks that Dumilah has no right to become Ã¢â¬Ëa munciÃ¢â¬â¢ of Ndara Tuan Kapten Sarjubehi because she is not at the same level with her or Ndara. Reference Ashcroft, Bill, et. al. 1946. The Empire Writes Back. London : Routledge Barry, Peter. 1824. Beginning Theory. Manchester : Manchester University Press Brata, Suparto. 2004. Gadis Tangsi. Jakarta : Kompas Reilly, John. 1978. Critical Approaches to Ethnic Literature. London : Oxford University Press
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Synthesis of External FactorsÃ¢â¬âEFAS After strategic managers have scanned the societal and task environments and identified a number of likely external factors for their particular corporation, they may want to refine their analysis of these factors using a form such as that given in Table 3. 4. The EFAS Table (External Factors Analysis Summary) is one way to organize the external factors into the generally accepted categories of opportunities and threats as well as to analyze how well a particular companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management (rating) is responding to these specific factors in light of the perceived importance (weight) of these factors to the company. To generate an EFAS Table for the company being analyzed, complete the following steps: In Column 1 (External Factors), list the eight to ten most important opportunities and threats facing the company. In Column 2 (Weight), assign a weight to each factor from 1. 0 (Most Important) to 0. 0 (Not Important) based on that factorÃ¢â¬â¢s probable impact on a particular companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current strategic position. The higher the weight, the more important is this factor to the current and future success of the company. (All weights must sum to 1. 0 regardless of the number of strategic factors. ) In Column 3 (Rating), assign a rating to each factor from 5 (Outstanding) to 1 (Poor) based on that particular companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current response to that particular factor. Each rating is a judgment regarding how well the company is currently dealing with each external factor. 5 43 2 1 Ã ¦_________________Ã ¦_____________Ã ¦_______________Ã ¦_______________Ã ¦ Out- Above Average BelowPoor standing Average Average In Column 4Ã (Weighted Score), multiply the weight in Column 2 for each factor times its rating in Column 3 to obtain that factorÃ¢â¬â¢s weighted score. This results in a weighted score for each factor ranging from 5. 0 (Outstanding) to 1. (Poor) with 3. 0 as average. In Column 5Ã (Comments), note why a particular factor was selected and how its weight and rating were estimated. Finally, add the weighted scores for all the external factors in Column 4 to determine the total weighted score for that particular company. The total weighted score indicates how well a particular company is responding to current and expected factors in its external environment. The score can be used to compare that firm to other firms in its industry. The total weighted score for an average firm in an industry is always 3. 0. As an example of this procedure, Table 3. 4 includes a number of external factors for Maytag Corporation with corresponding weights, ratings, and weighted scores provided. This table is appropriate for 1995 before Maytag sold its European and Australian operations. Note that MaytagÃ¢â¬â¢s total weight is 3. 15, meaning that the corporation is slightly above average in the major home appliance industry.
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Sopyonje analysis - Essay Example Cultural symbolism of Pansori Bowyer (151) argues that the use of the p'ansori yields metaphoric outcomes. It has for two decades bolstered the level of admiration of the genre among the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s youth, and created a desirable avenue through which traditional cultural beliefs and practices can be passed on to various population segments whose behavior is under threat from foreign cultures. P'ansori can be traced to the Jeolla region of southwestern Korea, where the director grew up. The use of "Sopyonje" as the title of the film refers to the western genre of p'ansori, which is believed to be secondary to the original Korean one. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s setting is misleadingly plain (Bowyer (151). Adopted from a short story text by Lee Chung-joon, Yu-bong is a key architect of p'ansori who moves away with his two children, daughter Song-hwa and son Dong-ho who are pansori, and drummer apprentices. The three characters travel across the rural areas in an attempt to perform and nurtu re their skills while showing a determination to preserve the key values of pansori. At this point, the film deviates from a typical American culture of open approach to and assimilation of foreign cultures to one of self-preservation. The characters look for an excellent environment where they can relocate their closest kin, their history, and their original pansori or masculinity. These are typical cases of a community that is keen on engaging in the quest for cultural preservation at any cost. Bowyer points out that the film features a relentless Korean population that seeks to widen the opportunities for not only playing p'ansori, but retaining its original form and value (151). In light of the inevitable cultural influences that would follow, p'ansori essentially embodies a socially appealing struggle to preserve the vital "Koreanness" in an environment where modernity threatened to erode the basic values that define the culture. Yu-bong and his pansori teamÃ¢â¬â¢s journey in a quest to retain the Korean culture outside of their native homes or Korean cities were basically driven by feelings of Han. Han is a Korean cultural feeling that one harbors when he or she cannot or is prohibited from showing feelings of discrimination, alienation, or abuse because one is a victim of power imbalance. Yu-bongÃ¢â¬â¢s team manage to slip away from their native homes, and carefully choses the traditional cultural environment in the countryside to correct the cultural imbalance caused by the influx of Japanese and American norms. Quest for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s voice Apart from struggling to reclaim the Korean culture which is at threat of Western civilization, Bowyer (151) points out that Im clearly defines the role of women in the modern Korean society and clearly adds to the quest for the dignity of the gender following many centuries of female abuse in the hands of South Korean men. Through the symbolic use of Song-hwa character, Ã¢â¬Å"SeopyeonjeÃ¢â¬ has for the pa st two decades attracted tens of millions of viewers in the country and beyond (Bowyer 151). The current impressive achievement of women in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership can partly be attributed to the soft, effective language that Im uses in the film to appeal to all segments of the society to support women causes. Conclusion Generally,