Friday, November 29, 2019
Drinking, Driving,Parties, and Commonsensical Solutions Matchmaker.com: Sign up now for a free trial. Date Smarter! Drinking, Driving,Parties, and Commonsensical Solutions Drinking and driving is the number one killer of teenagers in America. Because of it, the teenage group is the only age group who's number of deaths are increasing instead of decreasing. Outright denying teens of alcohol doesn't work. That just makes young adults want alcohol even more. What's sad about drinking under the influence cases is that every one of them could have been easily prevented. So, if you cannot deny adolescences of alcohol, why not just educate them on simple precautions that can be taken to prevent drinking and driving. One of the best and oldest ways to stop drinking under the influence is having a designated driver. It's not a hard thing to do. Just asking someone responsible to accompany you to a party (or whatever it may be) in which you know there will be alcohol. If you don't know if there will be alcoholic beverages served, take a responsible friend anyway just to make sure. Another good way to keep yourself from being a DUI case is to clear out your car of anything distracting. When you're drunk, simple things can give you an incredible amount of entertainment. So, clean out your car from fuzzy dice, cellular phones, anything that can distract you. Studies show that just by doing this, your chance of having an accident can be decreased by over 25%. So, you're already at the party and drinking beer. What can you do? For starters, you can try eating high protein food like meat, cheese, and peanuts. Foods that are rich in protein can help absorb alcohol faster. Another thing you can do is drink slowly. Take a sip every now and then. If you drink a gulp, you don't get to savor the taste and aroma. Also, you tend to drink a lot more than what you can take. What if you're the person who's throwing the party and serving the alcohol? Well, try to be the least bit responsible and help your fellow friends out. Before you let someone into your party, ask him or her to hand in their keys. No keys, no admittance. Doing this will prevent drinkers from ever using that car that night. What if someone refuses? Just don't let them in. If that person gets into an accident after the party, you will probably be held responsible for serving the beverages. Serving food first before drinks is also a good idea. As explained before, food helps the body absorb alcohol better. Furthermore, always respect a person's choice not to drink. That person can be a designated driver. If not, he or she isn't a "sissy," they're just trying to play it cautious. So, you've made it through the night. You had only a few drinks so your senses are just barley impaired. What about everyone else who had a bit more than they should have? Well, if you haven't taken their keys already, the best thing to do is to avoid drunk drivers. Here are some visual cues that have a good probability that the person behind the wheel is drunk. Turning With Wide Radius Straddling Center or Lane Marker Appearing to be Drunk Almost Striking Object or Vehicle Weaving Driving on Other Than Designated Roadway MP Below Limit If you see anyone giving one or more of those visual cues, watch out. They have more than a 65% chance of being influenced by alcohol. So, even though you probably knew how to party hardy, now you know how to party safe.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Euthanasia and Meaning of Life The moral questions, ethics and meaning of life are all concepts that are closely connected and deal with how people view the value of life, what it means to the whole of human society and individuals. Many ethical and difficult decisions are always questioned, especially ones in relation to euthanasia and if it should be permitted, regulated or forbidden altogether. The argument centers on the positive sides of euthanasia and what makes such actions acceptable, in relation to personal wishes of the individual and lack of suffering.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Euthanasia and Meaning of Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The meaning of life is the most general aspect of judging about the requirements that must be set out by laws and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s morals in regarding to the voluntary or involuntary taking of that life. In Ã¢â¬Å"Moral DilemmasÃ¢â¬ ¦Can Ethics Help?Ã¢â¬ it is talked about letting infan ts die, if they have problems when being born, to prevent further suffering or giving every effort to make sure they survive but have a limited existence. The discussion focuses on Kant and what would be the morally correct thing to do, in the interests of an infant and the future quality of life they will have. From one perspective, an infant should be treated as an adult and their wishes should be respected, in the want for a happy life. From another, it is possible to see the most good or bad that will come out for the greater society, parents and individuals themselves (Moral DilemmasÃ¢â¬ ¦Can Ethics Help, 2). The meaning of life is centered on the pleasures that people will get from being in the world, as all would agree that the negatives and stress is always unwanted, no matter who a person is, from what social class or country. In his essay on Ã¢â¬Å"DeathÃ¢â¬ , Thomas Nagel analyzes the issue of death and how people think of it. He says that Ã¢â¬Å"If death is a disadvan tage, it is not easy to say when a man suffers itÃ¢â¬ (Nagel, 3). This leads to believe that it would be much better to let things take their natural turn of events and let the infant die, as they will be unable to suffer, in comparison to a life full of pain and limitations. Considering euthanasia, the case of Dr. Freud comes to mind. He was having cancer and was in a lot of pain, thus, he requested his dear friend Max Schur, to inject him with a drug and end his suffering. In his writings, doctor accepted the possibility of euthanasia but only if it is requested by the patient themselves and the person administering the drug has no personal interest, want or need to do so (Freud 98). It is clear that Dr. Freud did not want to suffer any more and made a conscious decision that it would be better to feel nothing, than pain and agony. This sort of thinking is attributed to the infant and it is said that if they could reason as well as an adult can, they would choose death, instead of life in pain. For example, utilitarianism states that people must focus on the greater good for all people and maximize happiness in the process.Advertising Looking for term paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most basic aspect is the utilization of the situation in such a way that everyone does not suffer and get the most out of actions of actors. The end results or consequences of actions is what matters, so people should make their selections very carefully. One of the most important criteria of life is the balance between happiness and unhappiness. If a certain action will bring less happiness, especially to the greater amount of people, then such action should be avoided at all costs. The decision bases itself on ethics and moral principles of highest order and even takes into consideration the happiness principle and the way people act towards the concept. There are many individuals who sup port utilitarian division of philosophy because it does not base itself on religion or any other power except a person, humanity and the greater good for people. The highest ethical criteria define peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and even though the situation matters and different conditions can be present, the end result stays the same and bases itself on most happiness. There is no denying that the individual will not suffer, parents will not constantly worry about their child and the society will not have to contribute to support social programs and health system. In a discussion titled Ã¢â¬Å"What Is the Meaning of Life?Ã¢â¬ a question of whether there are universal laws for it or people make it themselves are asked. It is discussed that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning in life has become very confusing and there are two sides, one has a point, the other one does not. It is said that awareness creates meaning, which leads to believe that simply because people understand and interpret the info rmation received, there is a point and they must continue living to gain more knowledge and understating (What is the Meaning of Life 4). An opposing view looks at euthanasia from a point of a person being given the right to life; no matter by what circumstances it is defined. Comparing necessity to morality, it is that a rational and universal law makes it a must for one person to help another or commit an act that will be moral by the highest standards. Thus, people must do all in their power to save a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and no matter how bad it might be, it is still morally right because it is better to live and feel, than not. The ethical and moral codes set out by the government in a form of laws reflect the general concepts of goodness and ethical attitude and behavior. This makes euthanasia illegal and it is because people in the strain of agony and pain cannot think clearly and would not be able to imagine future instances of life without pain. Their thinking is limited by the moment, whereas in the future, it is quite possible that they will get well and can continue living a full and happy life. The duties and responsibilities are based on the moral codes which require respectful and equal treatment to all. These ethics reflect the qualities that every person possesses. This is why it is important to create a system that bases its laws and regulations on highest moral standards of ethics and equality.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Euthanasia and Meaning of Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As an opposing view to euthanasia, this could be said to be the fact that the highest moral ethic is to let a person live their life because they have already received it and they exist in the world. Some might argue that people do not have a moral right to decide whether they want or must live, as their life is not theirs directly, they were not the ones who have given it to themselve s and so, their decision is unimportant. But from the other side, people are given a conscious thought to be able to make such decisions. Reason and logic are part of humanity and is specifically the separation people have from other animal species. It is true that some animals do have the ability to reason but the moral and ethical considerations are in the hands of humans. In the end, it is argued that as intellectual creatures, people should have the right to choose but there should be strict circumstances that regulate such behavior (Cavan 39). The modern society has many ethical and moral issues that are constantly debated and there are both positive and negative sides. Because morality is one of the major qualities of humanity, it can be seen why euthanasia is argued to be allowed and people should be able to choose themselves. The collective of all the moments of suffering that individuals will experience, together with the pain of their relatives, friends and society, create a lot of negativity and the purpose of life is to avoid any unwanted situations and sensations. But it is also argued that the highest and most ethical morality is to endure, suffer and learn from the process, no matter how painful and disturbing it is. There is much more arguments that must be discussed but future research should focus on the individual and their wants and needs because life belongs to a person and not society. Cavan, Seamus. Euthanasia: The Debate Over the Right to Die. New York, United States: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print. Freud, Sigmund. The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank. Maryland, United States: JHU Press, 2012. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"Moral DilemmasÃ¢â¬ ¦Can Ethics HelpÃ¢â¬ . Intelecom., Teleac, Pasadena, n.d. Television.Advertising Looking for term paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nagel, Thomas. Mortal Questions. New York, United States: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"What is the Meaning of LifeÃ¢â¬ . Intelecom., Teleac, Pasadena, n.d. Television.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Summary & Critical Response - Essay Example rein some of the key findings stated that while teenagers may learn new skills at work, there is only little attention given in terms of the amount of time provided for acquiring a skill, or what significance it contributes. Another study found that those students who did part time job while in school could reduce the unemployment rate; however, this implies that many of those who started working in fast food chains eventually stopped their schooling and end up in Ã¢â¬Å"low-skill jobs.Ã¢â¬ Etzioni concludes that youngsters should balance their needs and other endeavors, but education must be their utmost priority. The discussion of the arguments presented in the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Working at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s,Ã¢â¬ by Amitai Etzioni is highly persuasive as the author supported and justified his arguments on practical grounds as manifested in the real setting. He cited similar studies to bring out factual information, although the discussion is limited in the context of the American culture. However, he further justified that there are various differences in work culture from one place to another; this is clear enough to say that some cases may not be true, or are only partially true in other cultures. From the tone of the language he used, it can be implied that he sympathizes with the present real experience of the youngsters today such that he considered how their values formation, as well as their character as individuals, could be affected if they are being hooked up from the influence of working in fast food chains. In addition, he emphasized that parents should not forget about their lifelong commitment and responsibility towards their children. They should not always consider that teen employment is educational but rather something like an activity that can provide a better opportunity for education and work. At the same time, it should consider that such activity can also be abusive. Finally, his persuasive discussion supported the validity of his arguments such that his
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Descartes third meditation - Essay Example If from itself, then it is clear from what has been said that it is itself God, since if it has the power of existing through its own might, then undoubtedly it also has the power of actually possessing all the perfections of which it has an ideaÃ¢â¬âthat is, all the perfections which I conceive to be in God. If, on the other hand, it derives its existence from another cause, then the same question may be repeated concerning this further cause, namely whether it derives its existence from itself or from another cause, until eventually the ultimate cause is reached, and this will be God. Descartes presents two evidences of that outcome. Each piece of evidence states that an identified effect can be clarified as long as an all-powerful being is present. The effects Descartes draws on are the meditatorÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of (1) his/her life as predetermined and (2) of God. In this manner, Descartes directs the meditator to dig up his well-known rule for unraveling the truth, which is Ã¢â¬Ëclear and distinct perceptions are trueÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cunning 2010, 62). And, undoubtedly, a great deal of the Third Meditation focuses on whether the assumption of a misleading God, which appears to dispute the rule, can be eliminated (Wilson 2003). The application of the rule in assessing and disputing the deceiving-God assumption has encouraged a number of scholars to accuse Descartes of circular reasoning. In the Third Meditation, Descartes further claims that, fundamentally, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence as his maker is a circumstance of his taking part in inquiry informed by the method of doubt. This allows him to analyze with absolute confidence that God made him, and hence that all he knows Ã¢â¬ËclearlyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdistinctlyÃ¢â¬â¢ to be factual, is factual. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, in that case, is an external state of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s doubt (Gaukroger 2006). Apparently, God is not external with regard to taking up a space that
Monday, November 18, 2019
World Provety and Starvation - Essay Example An ethical judgment is difficult to make due to the fact that simple rules conflict. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist system as it regards an action as right as long as it benefits the whole society. According to UNICEF, 10 million children under 5 die each year due to poverty. Clearly, individuals tend to spend lavishly on themselves rather than investing these funds on someone that is malnourished and starved. Utilitarianism ethics argues that suffering, starvation and death from lack of food is detrimental. If one does not take any action to prevent this suffering without being shallow, then according to utilitarian ethics they are wrong. If one fails to donate to an agency and does not facilitate that process directly himself, they are ethically wrong and at fault. In addition, the concept of Golden Rule is embedded in the utilitarian ethics itself. If one understands the fact that the limit their lavish spending to bare minimum, they can drastically eliminate some of the pov erty in society. Consequently, Kantian ethics takes a different approach in this situation. Donating to a charitable organization often is considered a virtuous act.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Interracial Marriages Amongst African Immigrants In Hungary Sociology Essay In many countries throughout the world, marriage is primarily an agreement between two families. An alliance through marriage between two successful families can enhance the power, prestige and well being of all the members in that family. Interracial marriage is a potential venue where both partners can enrich their world-view depending on ones value and ability to accommodate cultural difference. The extent to which interracial marriages are accepted in our global society is a function of the cultural parameters within which these dynamics occur. It is apparent that the figurative shrinking of our globe seems to represent conditions that allow opportunity for the number of intercultural marriages to expand. This paper seeks to provide an overview of interracial marriages, taking into consideration, its reasons, evolutionary historic nature and its importance to African immigrants. History of Interracial Marriages Before discussing how historical changes have influenced interracial relationships, it is imperative to examine how relationships have evolved throughout history. During Medieval times, the families of would be couple arranged their marriage. Much of society placed emphasis on wealth and land ownership. People did not often marry outside of their class. Therefore, it was the role of family to find a suitable partner to make the transition into matrimony (Amt, 1993:77). Also, love was not a factor in the decision making process (Stritof, 2001). In the middle Ages, marriage was seen as a sacrament. Therefore, the transition into marriage was made in order to prevent sin and to procreate as the Bible dictates (Shahar, 1983:15). However, during colonial times, the role of the family was altered. The transition into marriage shifted from the parents control to the individuals control. In spite of this shift, though, the family did still largely influence whom the individual chose to marry . Children were guided and taught on how to choose the most suitable partner. During this time, romance became part of the marriage interest; it was an opportunity to love (Wilkins, 1998:502). Interracial relationships are historically determined. Interracial marriage started in the United State of America. Laws against interracial marriages date back to 1661. These laws were enacted to prevent whites from marrying outside their race. Individuals who married cross-culturally could be arrested (Schwalbe, 2001:23). These laws were not limited to African Americans, for example in Arizona whites and Native Americans were prohibited from marrying each other, on the other hand, in Montana whites could not marry Asian Americans (Schwartz, 2000:114).Similarly, in colonial Mexico, sexuality, marriage, and superstitious love and fertility rituals were subject to control by the Spanish inquisition (Stoler, 1989:134). Moran (2001:29), argued that anti-miscegenation laws established racial boundaries, racial purity, contained ambiguity, and preserved public recognition of sexual decency. Bardaglio (1999) holds that the anti-miscegenation law sought not so much to eliminate interracial sexual contact as to channel them. The main purpose of this law was to keep the black and white race apart. And it is for this reason that Stoler (1994:199) argued that the mÃ ©tissage (mixed blood) was conceived as a dangerous source of subversion, it was seen as a threat to white prestige, an embodiment of European degeneration and moral decay and represented, not only the dangers of foreign enemies at national borders, but the more pressing affront for European nation-states. This is what the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1962:149) so aptly defined as undermining the essence of the nation, and its interior frontiers. Therefore, sexual meanings and intimacy are social and cultural constructs which are the main forces conditioning human relationships. It is in this light that, Zelizer in Purchase of Intimacy (2005:1) holds that taboo against romantic affaire in workplace and sex for hire both rests on the twinned belief that intimacy corrupts the economy and economy c orrupt intimacy, intermarriage should be forbidden. In addition to the above, Roger (1990:315), holds that the United States is the only country in the New world which has carried its law against interracial marriage from its colonial period into its national one. In this light, Garrison questioned the states right to interfere with the private realm of marriage and he argued that marriage is not a province, and does not belong to the power of legislative assembly, therefore it is a wrong approach for the republican government to decide on the complexional affinity of those who choose to be united together in wedlock, and it may as rationally decree that corpulent and lean, tall and short, strong and weak persons shall not be married to each other as that there must be an agreement in the complexion of the parties ( cf Washington 1986:84). The right to select ones mate is one of the most ancient, most sacred of individual rights, and when the state interferes in this, except in the case of the mentally unfit, it but adds humour to the witticism (Roger, 1988:80) However, in 1967, the Supreme Court Case Loving v. Virginia declared laws against interracial marriages as unconstitutional (Schwalbe, 2001). This allowed individuals to explore other relationship opportunities and thus the rise of interracial marriages. These laws limited the pool of eligible mates and the transition into marriage was directly affected. These laws displayed the views of society; therefore, individuals wishing to make transition into marriage often followed these laws in order to gain societys approval and to avoid adversity. Reason for interracial Marriages As seen above, interracial relationship during the colonial era was considered a taboo or an abominable practice. Association with a European, talk less of marriage or dating a European woman was perceived as a challenge to European supremacy. Europeans regulated social conduct between races, so as to maintain racial purity. In spite of these regulatory mechanisms that were put in place, African immigrants still engaged in interracial marriages. The reasons for interracial marriages among immigrants vary from one person to another. For example, in some cases, the criteria for citizenship acquisition vary considerably between European states. Within the E U., the minimum residency; before aliens are eligible to apply for citizenship varies from three (Belgium), eight (Hungary) and ten (Austria and Hungary) years (Babcock, 2006:12-23).Some states requires shorter periods for applicants from states with whom they have cultural or historic ties. There are also variations in the requirements that states impose on those wishing to become their citizens. This is both natural and permissible. But, those requirements are nonetheless framed by moral considerations, which define their scope and limit (Caren, 1989:13-49).Many states exclude third country nationals from significant social and economic benefits such as employment benefits and health insurance, even if they have lived in their new state for several years. Citizenship, therefore, if only for instrumental reasons, is clearly a status worth having. But it is als o an intrinsically valuable status position, important as it signifies a persons equality under the law, full civic inclusion and ultimately immunity from deportation. As result, third country nationals have adopted various mechanisms to remain within EU member states. Examples of these mechanisms include commodification of sexuality, finding a shelter, or a job (in the formal or informal economy or as family labour), achieve legal status based on marriage terms (e.g. arranged or contract marriages). For instance, irregular immigrants attempt to legalise their residence with the help of various strategies. For most, illegal migrants apprehended by the authorities, entering the asylum process is the major form of legalising their stay in Hungary. In 1999, there were 11,500 asylum applications, with 5,100 submitted by citizens of former Yugoslavia and 6,000 by non Europeans. Thus, Hungary is primarily a transit country for asylum. Economic condition prevailing in Hungary can offer only a partial explanation to this phenomenon. Another equally important factor is the lengthy asylum procedures, and scarce opportunities for integration. For these reason, asylum seekers generally seeks protection elsewhere, many in other member countries of the E.U. Therefore, the most common reason for terminating an asylum procedure is that the applicant disappears (Ejalu, 2008). Similarly, Bledsoe and Sow (2008), carried out a study in Germany, and they argued that, Cameroonians in Germany, engaged in interracial relationship in order to maintain family reunification. Cameroonian women, who stay in Germany, are often those who gain residence rights by bearing a child for a German man, who is willing to recognise the child officially, irrespective of any long term paternal obligations. Using the German Federal Statistical office figures on the children of unmarried parents, Fleisher found that, in 2004, although there were about twice as many Cameroonian men than women in Germany, many more were born to Cameroonian women, than to Cameroonian men, that is, an equivalent of 240: 92, respectively. Among married partners, 49 children born to parents who were both Cameroonians but 169 were born to a Cameroonian and German conjugal pair. Again, there were considerably more, proportionately, children born to a Cameroonian German marriages who were born to Cameroonia n women and their German husbands, than Cameroonian men and their German wives. In addition to the above, for Cameroonian men, the pathway to legal residence in Germany is entirely different. Most German women who strike up relationships with Cameroonian men are substantially older than their partners, and are unwilling or unable to have a child. As well, the likelihood of becoming a parent of a German child, independently of its mother, is almost out of question, for a Cameroonian man. Claiming residence by producing a German child is thus much rarer for a Cameroonian man, than a woman from Cameroon. For a Cameroon man, without a job, the best route to acquire residence, is contracting and sustaining marriage with a German woman for at least three year, after which he can obtain residence, although authorities continue to exert surveillance, and may investigates cases of divorces after years. Fleisher found that, in 2004, there were 163 bi-national marriages between a Cameroonian and a German in Germany, most of them Cameroonian men marrying German women-but ju st six marriages between Cameroonian men and women. The further complexity is that, many Cameroonian men desire children and want to return home eventually. Confronted with the logic of singularity on which family reunification rules of marriage rest, some men quietly retain marriage with a woman back home by which they have borne children, or ask their families members to find a wife, whom they visit periodically before their final return. This is because, a Cameroonian man may come to see marriage to a German woman as a temporary necessity and look to Cameroon for his main family future, he may come to see traditional or at least Cameroonian marriages as the base, and formal marriage in the west as the temporary distortion. (Fleischer,2003). African immigrants may feel inferior due to a mental, physical, social handicap and enter an interracial relationship after determing that acceptance will be found only outside of a culture of birth. A marriage based on this motive may be consciously considered to be a second best or stand-in marriage interracial may be an act of aggression toward another race. Deviance and revenge by one partner can humiliate the in-law. They will either complement this need by feeling personally inferior or angry and rebellious against parents, culture and society (Blau, 1977:31). Leon (1984), suggests that idealism may be a motive ofliberal marrying inter-culturally. Identification with the underdog, an inferiority complex, rebellion, and rescue could be an outgrowth of this idealism. Importance of Interracial Marriages. Throughout history, the structure of interracial relationships has seen a drastic evolution. What once was seen as non-normative and forbidden practice is now seen as common. Specifically speaking, there has been an increase in heterogamous, cross-cultural, relationships. This rise in interracial relationships can be attributed to the reversal of anti-miscegenation laws, the lack of potential mates, the breakdown of segregation, immigration and advancements in technology. These changes in romantic relationships and the transition to marriage have allowed people to explore alternative lifestyles and relationships. Noticeably, interracial romantic relationships and marriages have become commonplace. According to Schwartz (2000:17) an increase in interracial marriages is as a result of immigration, increases the chances of meeting people from different racial backgrounds. For instance, the United States of America is considered a melting pot. The U.S.A. has many different races enmeshed into one society (Schwartz, 2007:23). This has allowed African immigrants to have many different types of romantic relationships/interracial marriages. Immigration has effected the transition into marriage by providing mates from many different backgrounds. Also, immigration has affected many peoples views on marriage by introducing people to new cultures. Interracial marriages among African immigrant is advantageous because it is seem as a gate way to integration and assimilation especially on the part on those immigrants who are being excluded from their societies The degree of social control and the institutionalised discrimination is a function of existing relationships between the majority(host country and minority. An increase in the number of primarily relationship (indicated by interracial marriage) between these groups signals a dissolutions of discriminatory and subordinating practices and less incumbered entrance of minority into social institution of the majority group (Gordon, 1964:35). On the other hand, interracial marriages may indicate a weakening of ethnic cohesion and a loss of highly value ethnic culture (Murguia, 1982). Beaumont (1958:245), suggests that intermarriages are certainly the best, if not the unique, means of fusing the white and the black races. They are also the most obvious index of equality. While the U.S court of 1873 considered interracial marriages as immoral, others saw it as a cultural betrayal .Opponents of interracial dating contend that those who date or marry outside of their race are betraying their families and abandoning their cultural heritage. Many African immigrants believe interracial marriage erodes the solidarity of the African community. Lawrence Otis Graham feels that interracial marriage undermines [African] ability to introduce our children to black role models who accept their racial identity with pride. Graham also fears that biracial children will turn their backs on their black heritage when they discover that it is easier to live as a white person (cf Sollors, 2000:23-58). On the other hand, proponents of interracial relationships contend that interracial romance is a step towards eliminating racial hatred. According to Mitali Perkins (2007:50), Where exploitation and anger have separated the races in society, an interracial family called by God is a compelling example of the gospel of reconciliation. Yvette Walker believes that Racism . . . will have to be bred out. We cant make policies to change it. And certainly, in an interracial relationship the children are raised in a climate of tolerance. She and others contend that the rising incidence of interracial children will eventually lead to a society where race will no longer matter because everyone will blend into one race, the human race. More importantly, assert many supporters of interracial relationships, colour should not matter when it comes to love. They echo Martin Luther King Jr.s famous sentiment that people should be judged not by the colour of their skin but by the content of their characterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ (cf Perkins 2007:206) African immigrants believe that interracial marriages offer the best opportunities for couples and professionals to experience, learn, develop, and educate themselves. Empowerment traits for interracial marriage and intimacy are core ingredients in promoting positive relationships in order that each of the couples families might work towards achieving optimal interracial satisfaction and simultaneously cope with external forces such as nationality, community, family, and individual. (McFadden, 2002:220). In the past, African immigrants were considered as inferior, Buirj (1993:176-179) argued that immigrants are lazy, incompetent, and inefficient because they lack both the cultural and symbolic capital. Michele Lamont (2000) recapitulates the negative feeling toward immigrants and reflects the continuing availability of cultural repertoires stressing the moral failure of immigrants. In the view of historian David Kennedy, in United States on the one hand Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦immigrants were judged to be noble soulsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦whose talents and genius and love of liberty account for the magnificent American character. On the other handÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ [they] were thought to be degraded, freeloading louts, a blight on the national character and a drain on the economyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦(cf Lamont, 2000:105). Scientific opinion at present tends to admit that an African immigrant is not inferior in any essential character of mind; and is approximately equal to other races in his ability to acquire culture (Du Bois, 1899). Despite the long-entrenched, labels to racially categorise African population in history, a trend has emerged towards a more fluid view of racial identification. Schacht and Knox (2000:279) argued that due to an interracial marriage/dating relationship amongst immigrants, there has been a gradual, if not, socially recognised shift in how immigrants are perceived. They have gained recognition. Moreover, interracial relationships are a step toward a more integrated and egalitarian society. For example, the future of Africans belongs to the person who is the product of many different cultures. Through interracial marriage, different cultures will develop their unique identities and come together in harmony. Benefits of interracial marriages would be that an African [immigrant] child would learn more tolerance and respect towards all races. Such children may be open to new ideas, and less hostile regarding ones religious creed or nationality. Many wars are fought over both religion and patriotic fanaticism, and a child of mixed background is not going to really purely identify with either one of the other racial background, thus, the child is less susceptible to being nationalistic to a fanatical degree. (Innocent, Sirefman, 1992). However, interracial marriages enable Africans immigrants to acquire citizenship and to engage in the political affairs of the host country. It is therefore a gateway for immigrants with citizenship status to shape and influence decisions at the national level. Thus, immigrants often view citizenship as crucial for the future prosperity of their children and their immediate relatives. The possibility of reuniting with family members is the major reason for acquiring citizenship. Citizenship also carries with it status and prestige among extended family members in the country of origin. Immigrants who have naturalised tell stories about how parents and relatives at home in Africa boast about their accomplishments. Praise and accolades are given to those who have become citizens (Arthur, 2000:24) Citizenship in other word, affects the shift in the cultural identities of immigrants (Afolabi, Falola, 2008: 49). Furthermore, interracial marriage is seen as strategic for integration and a form of assimilation. Park and Burgess (1969:735) define assimilation as a process of interpenetration and fusion in which person and groups acquire the memories, sentiments and aptitude of other groups and by sharing their experience and history, are incorporated with them in a common life the process of interpenetration is arguably best examplied in intermarriage which is often seen as the final step in the assimilation process. For African immigrants, it is a gate way to better life. Intermarriage is a clear signal that minority groups have adopted the cultural patterns of the host or majority population, such as its language and customs. On the other hand, during the assimilation process, African immigrants tend to lose their distinctive characteristics as they pass through the stages of assimilation, eventually intermarrying with the majority population (Alba 2003; Gordon 1964: 89) Theoretical Framework Using the status exchange theory (Merton, 1941, Davis, 1941), I have argued that interracial marriages would frequently involve an exchange of status characteristics. Highly educated Africa immigrants would trade their educational status in order to reap the benefits associated with the racial status of a potential white spouse. Similarly, whites with low levels of education would trade their racial status for the educational status of a potential black spouse. Consequently, a black-white marriage is likely to involve a black spouse with greater education than the white spouse because these types of individuals would each have something to gain from the union. Interracial marriages involving white spouses with greater education than their black spouses would be much less likely because blacks would have nothing to offer their potential white spouse in return for the white spouse marrying down in terms of race. Both Merton and Davis believed that this process of status exchange was ap plicable only to black male-white female unions because a black mans educational background would be more closely tied to future potential earnings and prestige than would a black womans education. Lacking empirical data to confirm this hypothesis, Merton provided the framework for a future test of the theory. According to Merton, the correct procedure would be to compare the relative frequency of three types of interracial marriage: educationally homogamous unions (Group A), unions in which the white member marries upward (white hyper- gamy) in terms of education (Group B), and unions in which the white member marries downward (white hypogamy) in terms of education (Group C).2 Group B should be the most common type because it involves the expected exchange of status characteristics, and Group C should be the least common type. Numerous scholars have since shown that this test fails because most interracial marriages are educationally homogamous. Individuals have a strong tendency to marry partners of a similar educational background, and this tendency has been increasing over the last half-century (Schwartz and Mare 2005). Thus, to some extend educational status is not the only means used by African immigrants to engaged in interracial relationship but the desire to acquired integration t hrough various means such as citizenship and resident permit is another reason for interracial marriages as already highlighted above. To conclude, in spite some of the miscegenation laws put in placed in the past, the desire to acquired citizenship, resident permits are reason of the that have pushed Africans immigrants to engaged interracial marriages, in order to reap the benefits of the host country in which they find themselves.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The aim of this report is to discuss Italian Neorealism (Neorealismo); looking at how the movement played a significant element in European cinema during and after the times of Benito MussoliniÃ¢â¬â¢s fascist regime. The report not only looks at how but why Neorealism became a growing phenomenon for filmmakers during its debatable 10 year period, and what implication of messages these Neorealist directors were trying to send out through their films. Backed up by several reliable book sources, the evidence for this report will also highlight the influences Neo-realism has created in modern filmmaking today. Before the dawn of Neorealism, Italy was under great turmoil in the early 1920s suffering from major economic crisis, bank failures and a collapsing government, which would also mean a collapse in the Italian film industry and the Ã¢â¬ËSilent EraÃ¢â¬â¢ of cinema (Roberts, 2005). When Benito Mussolini took control as the 40th Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 the revival of Italian cinema would be once again be relived, but this time ruled under the control and guidance by Mussolini and his fascist government (Bondanella, 2001). It was not until the mid 1930s that the brutish dictator truly recognized the potential power of media, where in 1935 a special funding was given to the production of Italian films which was used to open up film institutions like the Ã¢â¬ËCentro Sperimenale di CinematografiaÃ¢â¬â¢ (CSC) film school, and Ã¢â¬ËCinecittaÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cinema City) studios in 1937 (Ruberto and Wilson, 2007). The development of these institutions sparked the appearance of early sound cinema, specializing in genres such as comedies, melodramas, musicals and historical films, but were all categorized as Ã¢â¬ËpropagandaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëwhite telephoneÃ¢â¬â¢ films by many critics due... ...echoslovak New Wave, DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s Dogme 95, and British Social Realism, which all can be seen as notable influences from that of Italian Neorealism. Works Cited Roberts, J. (2005), Benito Mussolini, Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. Bonandella, P. (2010), Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present (3rd edn), London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. Ruberto, L.E. and Wilson, K.M. (ed.) (2007), Italian Neorealism and Global Cinema, Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Reich, J. and Garofalo, P. (ed.) (2002), Re-viewing Fascism: Italian Cinema, 1922-1943, Indiana: Indiana University Press. Landy, M. (2000), Italian Film, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sorlin, P. (1996), Italian National Cinema 1896-1996, London: Routledge. Shiel, M. (2006), Italian Neorealism: Rebuilding the Cinematic City, London: Wallflower Press.