Friday, November 29, 2019

Drinking, Driving,Parties, And Commonsensical Solutions Essays

Drinking, Driving,Parties, and Commonsensical Solutions Sign up now for a free trial. Date Smarter! Drinking, Driving,Parties, and Commonsensical Solutions Drinking and driving is the number one killer of teenagers in America. Because of it, the teenage group is the only age group who's number of deaths are increasing instead of decreasing. Outright denying teens of alcohol doesn't work. That just makes young adults want alcohol even more. What's sad about drinking under the influence cases is that every one of them could have been easily prevented. So, if you cannot deny adolescences of alcohol, why not just educate them on simple precautions that can be taken to prevent drinking and driving. One of the best and oldest ways to stop drinking under the influence is having a designated driver. It's not a hard thing to do. Just asking someone responsible to accompany you to a party (or whatever it may be) in which you know there will be alcohol. If you don't know if there will be alcoholic beverages served, take a responsible friend anyway just to make sure. Another good way to keep yourself from being a DUI case is to clear out your car of anything distracting. When you're drunk, simple things can give you an incredible amount of entertainment. So, clean out your car from fuzzy dice, cellular phones, anything that can distract you. Studies show that just by doing this, your chance of having an accident can be decreased by over 25%. So, you're already at the party and drinking beer. What can you do? For starters, you can try eating high protein food like meat, cheese, and peanuts. Foods that are rich in protein can help absorb alcohol faster. Another thing you can do is drink slowly. Take a sip every now and then. If you drink a gulp, you don't get to savor the taste and aroma. Also, you tend to drink a lot more than what you can take. What if you're the person who's throwing the party and serving the alcohol? Well, try to be the least bit responsible and help your fellow friends out. Before you let someone into your party, ask him or her to hand in their keys. No keys, no admittance. Doing this will prevent drinkers from ever using that car that night. What if someone refuses? Just don't let them in. If that person gets into an accident after the party, you will probably be held responsible for serving the beverages. Serving food first before drinks is also a good idea. As explained before, food helps the body absorb alcohol better. Furthermore, always respect a person's choice not to drink. That person can be a designated driver. If not, he or she isn't a "sissy," they're just trying to play it cautious. So, you've made it through the night. You had only a few drinks so your senses are just barley impaired. What about everyone else who had a bit more than they should have? Well, if you haven't taken their keys already, the best thing to do is to avoid drunk drivers. Here are some visual cues that have a good probability that the person behind the wheel is drunk. Turning With Wide Radius Straddling Center or Lane Marker Appearing to be Drunk Almost Striking Object or Vehicle Weaving Driving on Other Than Designated Roadway MP Below Limit If you see anyone giving one or more of those visual cues, watch out. They have more than a 65% chance of being influenced by alcohol. So, even though you probably knew how to party hardy, now you know how to party safe.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Euthanasia and Meaning of Life

Euthanasia and Meaning of Life The moral questions, ethics and meaning of life are all concepts that are closely connected and deal with how people view the value of life, what it means to the whole of human society and individuals. Many ethical and difficult decisions are always questioned, especially ones in relation to euthanasia and if it should be permitted, regulated or forbidden altogether. The argument centers on the positive sides of euthanasia and what makes such actions acceptable, in relation to personal wishes of the individual and lack of suffering.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Euthanasia and Meaning of Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The meaning of life is the most general aspect of judging about the requirements that must be set out by laws and people’s morals in regarding to the voluntary or involuntary taking of that life. In â€Å"Moral Dilemmas†¦Can Ethics Help?† it is talked about letting infan ts die, if they have problems when being born, to prevent further suffering or giving every effort to make sure they survive but have a limited existence. The discussion focuses on Kant and what would be the morally correct thing to do, in the interests of an infant and the future quality of life they will have. From one perspective, an infant should be treated as an adult and their wishes should be respected, in the want for a happy life. From another, it is possible to see the most good or bad that will come out for the greater society, parents and individuals themselves (Moral Dilemmas†¦Can Ethics Help, 2). The meaning of life is centered on the pleasures that people will get from being in the world, as all would agree that the negatives and stress is always unwanted, no matter who a person is, from what social class or country. In his essay on â€Å"Death†, Thomas Nagel analyzes the issue of death and how people think of it. He says that â€Å"If death is a disadvan tage, it is not easy to say when a man suffers it† (Nagel, 3). This leads to believe that it would be much better to let things take their natural turn of events and let the infant die, as they will be unable to suffer, in comparison to a life full of pain and limitations. Considering euthanasia, the case of Dr. Freud comes to mind. He was having cancer and was in a lot of pain, thus, he requested his dear friend Max Schur, to inject him with a drug and end his suffering. In his writings, doctor accepted the possibility of euthanasia but only if it is requested by the patient themselves and the person administering the drug has no personal interest, want or need to do so (Freud 98). It is clear that Dr. Freud did not want to suffer any more and made a conscious decision that it would be better to feel nothing, than pain and agony. This sort of thinking is attributed to the infant and it is said that if they could reason as well as an adult can, they would choose death, instead of life in pain. For example, utilitarianism states that people must focus on the greater good for all people and maximize happiness in the process.Advertising Looking for term paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most basic aspect is the utilization of the situation in such a way that everyone does not suffer and get the most out of actions of actors. The end results or consequences of actions is what matters, so people should make their selections very carefully. One of the most important criteria of life is the balance between happiness and unhappiness. If a certain action will bring less happiness, especially to the greater amount of people, then such action should be avoided at all costs. The decision bases itself on ethics and moral principles of highest order and even takes into consideration the happiness principle and the way people act towards the concept. There are many individuals who sup port utilitarian division of philosophy because it does not base itself on religion or any other power except a person, humanity and the greater good for people. The highest ethical criteria define people’s actions and even though the situation matters and different conditions can be present, the end result stays the same and bases itself on most happiness. There is no denying that the individual will not suffer, parents will not constantly worry about their child and the society will not have to contribute to support social programs and health system. In a discussion titled â€Å"What Is the Meaning of Life?† a question of whether there are universal laws for it or people make it themselves are asked. It is discussed that people’s meaning in life has become very confusing and there are two sides, one has a point, the other one does not. It is said that awareness creates meaning, which leads to believe that simply because people understand and interpret the info rmation received, there is a point and they must continue living to gain more knowledge and understating (What is the Meaning of Life 4). An opposing view looks at euthanasia from a point of a person being given the right to life; no matter by what circumstances it is defined. Comparing necessity to morality, it is that a rational and universal law makes it a must for one person to help another or commit an act that will be moral by the highest standards. Thus, people must do all in their power to save a person’s life and no matter how bad it might be, it is still morally right because it is better to live and feel, than not. The ethical and moral codes set out by the government in a form of laws reflect the general concepts of goodness and ethical attitude and behavior. This makes euthanasia illegal and it is because people in the strain of agony and pain cannot think clearly and would not be able to imagine future instances of life without pain. Their thinking is limited by the moment, whereas in the future, it is quite possible that they will get well and can continue living a full and happy life. The duties and responsibilities are based on the moral codes which require respectful and equal treatment to all. These ethics reflect the qualities that every person possesses. This is why it is important to create a system that bases its laws and regulations on highest moral standards of ethics and equality.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Euthanasia and Meaning of Life specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As an opposing view to euthanasia, this could be said to be the fact that the highest moral ethic is to let a person live their life because they have already received it and they exist in the world. Some might argue that people do not have a moral right to decide whether they want or must live, as their life is not theirs directly, they were not the ones who have given it to themselve s and so, their decision is unimportant. But from the other side, people are given a conscious thought to be able to make such decisions. Reason and logic are part of humanity and is specifically the separation people have from other animal species. It is true that some animals do have the ability to reason but the moral and ethical considerations are in the hands of humans. In the end, it is argued that as intellectual creatures, people should have the right to choose but there should be strict circumstances that regulate such behavior (Cavan 39). The modern society has many ethical and moral issues that are constantly debated and there are both positive and negative sides. Because morality is one of the major qualities of humanity, it can be seen why euthanasia is argued to be allowed and people should be able to choose themselves. The collective of all the moments of suffering that individuals will experience, together with the pain of their relatives, friends and society, create a lot of negativity and the purpose of life is to avoid any unwanted situations and sensations. But it is also argued that the highest and most ethical morality is to endure, suffer and learn from the process, no matter how painful and disturbing it is. There is much more arguments that must be discussed but future research should focus on the individual and their wants and needs because life belongs to a person and not society. Cavan, Seamus. Euthanasia: The Debate Over the Right to Die. New York, United States: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print. Freud, Sigmund. The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank. Maryland, United States: JHU Press, 2012. Print. â€Å"Moral Dilemmas†¦Can Ethics Help†. Intelecom., Teleac, Pasadena, n.d. Television.Advertising Looking for term paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nagel, Thomas. Mortal Questions. New York, United States: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print. â€Å"What is the Meaning of Life†. Intelecom., Teleac, Pasadena, n.d. Television.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Summary & Critical Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Summary & Critical Response - Essay Example rein some of the key findings stated that while teenagers may learn new skills at work, there is only little attention given in terms of the amount of time provided for acquiring a skill, or what significance it contributes. Another study found that those students who did part time job while in school could reduce the unemployment rate; however, this implies that many of those who started working in fast food chains eventually stopped their schooling and end up in â€Å"low-skill jobs.† Etzioni concludes that youngsters should balance their needs and other endeavors, but education must be their utmost priority. The discussion of the arguments presented in the article, â€Å"Working at McDonald’s,† by Amitai Etzioni is highly persuasive as the author supported and justified his arguments on practical grounds as manifested in the real setting. He cited similar studies to bring out factual information, although the discussion is limited in the context of the American culture. However, he further justified that there are various differences in work culture from one place to another; this is clear enough to say that some cases may not be true, or are only partially true in other cultures. From the tone of the language he used, it can be implied that he sympathizes with the present real experience of the youngsters today such that he considered how their values formation, as well as their character as individuals, could be affected if they are being hooked up from the influence of working in fast food chains. In addition, he emphasized that parents should not forget about their lifelong commitment and responsibility towards their children. They should not always consider that teen employment is educational but rather something like an activity that can provide a better opportunity for education and work. At the same time, it should consider that such activity can also be abusive. Finally, his persuasive discussion supported the validity of his arguments such that his

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Descartes third meditation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Descartes third meditation - Essay Example If from itself, then it is clear from what has been said that it is itself God, since if it has the power of existing through its own might, then undoubtedly it also has the power of actually possessing all the perfections of which it has an idea—that is, all the perfections which I conceive to be in God. If, on the other hand, it derives its existence from another cause, then the same question may be repeated concerning this further cause, namely whether it derives its existence from itself or from another cause, until eventually the ultimate cause is reached, and this will be God. Descartes presents two evidences of that outcome. Each piece of evidence states that an identified effect can be clarified as long as an all-powerful being is present. The effects Descartes draws on are the meditator’s idea of (1) his/her life as predetermined and (2) of God. In this manner, Descartes directs the meditator to dig up his well-known rule for unraveling the truth, which is ‘clear and distinct perceptions are true’ (Cunning 2010, 62). And, undoubtedly, a great deal of the Third Meditation focuses on whether the assumption of a misleading God, which appears to dispute the rule, can be eliminated (Wilson 2003). The application of the rule in assessing and disputing the deceiving-God assumption has encouraged a number of scholars to accuse Descartes of circular reasoning. In the Third Meditation, Descartes further claims that, fundamentally, God’s existence as his maker is a circumstance of his taking part in inquiry informed by the method of doubt. This allows him to analyze with absolute confidence that God made him, and hence that all he knows ‘clearly’ and ‘distinctly’ to be factual, is factual. God’s existence, in that case, is an external state of Descartes’s doubt (Gaukroger 2006). Apparently, God is not external with regard to taking up a space that

Monday, November 18, 2019

World Provety and Starvation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

World Provety and Starvation - Essay Example An ethical judgment is difficult to make due to the fact that simple rules conflict. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist system as it regards an action as right as long as it benefits the whole society. According to UNICEF, 10 million children under 5 die each year due to poverty. Clearly, individuals tend to spend lavishly on themselves rather than investing these funds on someone that is malnourished and starved. Utilitarianism ethics argues that suffering, starvation and death from lack of food is detrimental. If one does not take any action to prevent this suffering without being shallow, then according to utilitarian ethics they are wrong. If one fails to donate to an agency and does not facilitate that process directly himself, they are ethically wrong and at fault. In addition, the concept of Golden Rule is embedded in the utilitarian ethics itself. If one understands the fact that the limit their lavish spending to bare minimum, they can drastically eliminate some of the pov erty in society. Consequently, Kantian ethics takes a different approach in this situation. Donating to a charitable organization often is considered a virtuous act.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Interracial Marriages Amongst African Immigrants In Hungary Sociology Essay

Interracial Marriages Amongst African Immigrants In Hungary Sociology Essay In many countries throughout the world, marriage is primarily an agreement between two families. An alliance through marriage between two successful families can enhance the power, prestige and well being of all the members in that family. Interracial marriage is a potential venue where both partners can enrich their world-view depending on ones value and ability to accommodate cultural difference. The extent to which interracial marriages are accepted in our global society is a function of the cultural parameters within which these dynamics occur. It is apparent that the figurative shrinking of our globe seems to represent conditions that allow opportunity for the number of intercultural marriages to expand. This paper seeks to provide an overview of interracial marriages, taking into consideration, its reasons, evolutionary historic nature and its importance to African immigrants. History of Interracial Marriages Before discussing how historical changes have influenced interracial relationships, it is imperative to examine how relationships have evolved throughout history. During Medieval times, the families of would be couple arranged their marriage. Much of society placed emphasis on wealth and land ownership. People did not often marry outside of their class. Therefore, it was the role of family to find a suitable partner to make the transition into matrimony (Amt, 1993:77). Also, love was not a factor in the decision making process (Stritof, 2001). In the middle Ages, marriage was seen as a sacrament. Therefore, the transition into marriage was made in order to prevent sin and to procreate as the Bible dictates (Shahar, 1983:15). However, during colonial times, the role of the family was altered. The transition into marriage shifted from the parents control to the individuals control. In spite of this shift, though, the family did still largely influence whom the individual chose to marry . Children were guided and taught on how to choose the most suitable partner. During this time, romance became part of the marriage interest; it was an opportunity to love (Wilkins, 1998:502). Interracial relationships are historically determined. Interracial marriage started in the United State of America. Laws against interracial marriages date back to 1661. These laws were enacted to prevent whites from marrying outside their race. Individuals who married cross-culturally could be arrested (Schwalbe, 2001:23). These laws were not limited to African Americans, for example in Arizona whites and Native Americans were prohibited from marrying each other, on the other hand, in Montana whites could not marry Asian Americans (Schwartz, 2000:114).Similarly, in colonial Mexico, sexuality, marriage, and superstitious love and fertility rituals were subject to control by the Spanish inquisition (Stoler, 1989:134). Moran (2001:29), argued that anti-miscegenation laws established racial boundaries, racial purity, contained ambiguity, and preserved public recognition of sexual decency. Bardaglio (1999) holds that the anti-miscegenation law sought not so much to eliminate interracial sexual contact as to channel them. The main purpose of this law was to keep the black and white race apart. And it is for this reason that Stoler (1994:199) argued that the mà ©tissage (mixed blood) was conceived as a dangerous source of subversion, it was seen as a threat to white prestige, an embodiment of European degeneration and moral decay and represented, not only the dangers of foreign enemies at national borders, but the more pressing affront for European nation-states. This is what the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1962:149) so aptly defined as undermining the essence of the nation, and its interior frontiers. Therefore, sexual meanings and intimacy are social and cultural constructs which are the main forces conditioning human relationships. It is in this light that, Zelizer in Purchase of Intimacy (2005:1) holds that taboo against romantic affaire in workplace and sex for hire both rests on the twinned belief that intimacy corrupts the economy and economy c orrupt intimacy, intermarriage should be forbidden. In addition to the above, Roger (1990:315), holds that the United States is the only country in the New world which has carried its law against interracial marriage from its colonial period into its national one. In this light, Garrison questioned the states right to interfere with the private realm of marriage and he argued that marriage is not a province, and does not belong to the power of legislative assembly, therefore it is a wrong approach for the republican government to decide on the complexional affinity of those who choose to be united together in wedlock, and it may as rationally decree that corpulent and lean, tall and short, strong and weak persons shall not be married to each other as that there must be an agreement in the complexion of the parties ( cf Washington 1986:84). The right to select ones mate is one of the most ancient, most sacred of individual rights, and when the state interferes in this, except in the case of the mentally unfit, it but adds humour to the witticism (Roger, 1988:80) However, in 1967, the Supreme Court Case Loving v. Virginia declared laws against interracial marriages as unconstitutional (Schwalbe, 2001). This allowed individuals to explore other relationship opportunities and thus the rise of interracial marriages. These laws limited the pool of eligible mates and the transition into marriage was directly affected. These laws displayed the views of society; therefore, individuals wishing to make transition into marriage often followed these laws in order to gain societys approval and to avoid adversity. Reason for interracial Marriages As seen above, interracial relationship during the colonial era was considered a taboo or an abominable practice. Association with a European, talk less of marriage or dating a European woman was perceived as a challenge to European supremacy. Europeans regulated social conduct between races, so as to maintain racial purity. In spite of these regulatory mechanisms that were put in place, African immigrants still engaged in interracial marriages. The reasons for interracial marriages among immigrants vary from one person to another. For example, in some cases, the criteria for citizenship acquisition vary considerably between European states. Within the E U., the minimum residency; before aliens are eligible to apply for citizenship varies from three (Belgium), eight (Hungary) and ten (Austria and Hungary) years (Babcock, 2006:12-23).Some states requires shorter periods for applicants from states with whom they have cultural or historic ties. There are also variations in the requirements that states impose on those wishing to become their citizens. This is both natural and permissible. But, those requirements are nonetheless framed by moral considerations, which define their scope and limit (Caren, 1989:13-49).Many states exclude third country nationals from significant social and economic benefits such as employment benefits and health insurance, even if they have lived in their new state for several years. Citizenship, therefore, if only for instrumental reasons, is clearly a status worth having. But it is als o an intrinsically valuable status position, important as it signifies a persons equality under the law, full civic inclusion and ultimately immunity from deportation. As result, third country nationals have adopted various mechanisms to remain within EU member states. Examples of these mechanisms include commodification of sexuality, finding a shelter, or a job (in the formal or informal economy or as family labour), achieve legal status based on marriage terms (e.g. arranged or contract marriages). For instance, irregular immigrants attempt to legalise their residence with the help of various strategies. For most, illegal migrants apprehended by the authorities, entering the asylum process is the major form of legalising their stay in Hungary. In 1999, there were 11,500 asylum applications, with 5,100 submitted by citizens of former Yugoslavia and 6,000 by non Europeans. Thus, Hungary is primarily a transit country for asylum. Economic condition prevailing in Hungary can offer only a partial explanation to this phenomenon. Another equally important factor is the lengthy asylum procedures, and scarce opportunities for integration. For these reason, asylum seekers generally seeks protection elsewhere, many in other member countries of the E.U. Therefore, the most common reason for terminating an asylum procedure is that the applicant disappears (Ejalu, 2008). Similarly, Bledsoe and Sow (2008), carried out a study in Germany, and they argued that, Cameroonians in Germany, engaged in interracial relationship in order to maintain family reunification. Cameroonian women, who stay in Germany, are often those who gain residence rights by bearing a child for a German man, who is willing to recognise the child officially, irrespective of any long term paternal obligations. Using the German Federal Statistical office figures on the children of unmarried parents, Fleisher found that, in 2004, although there were about twice as many Cameroonian men than women in Germany, many more were born to Cameroonian women, than to Cameroonian men, that is, an equivalent of 240: 92, respectively. Among married partners, 49 children born to parents who were both Cameroonians but 169 were born to a Cameroonian and German conjugal pair. Again, there were considerably more, proportionately, children born to a Cameroonian German marriages who were born to Cameroonia n women and their German husbands, than Cameroonian men and their German wives. In addition to the above, for Cameroonian men, the pathway to legal residence in Germany is entirely different. Most German women who strike up relationships with Cameroonian men are substantially older than their partners, and are unwilling or unable to have a child. As well, the likelihood of becoming a parent of a German child, independently of its mother, is almost out of question, for a Cameroonian man. Claiming residence by producing a German child is thus much rarer for a Cameroonian man, than a woman from Cameroon. For a Cameroon man, without a job, the best route to acquire residence, is contracting and sustaining marriage with a German woman for at least three year, after which he can obtain residence, although authorities continue to exert surveillance, and may investigates cases of divorces after years. Fleisher found that, in 2004, there were 163 bi-national marriages between a Cameroonian and a German in Germany, most of them Cameroonian men marrying German women-but ju st six marriages between Cameroonian men and women. The further complexity is that, many Cameroonian men desire children and want to return home eventually. Confronted with the logic of singularity on which family reunification rules of marriage rest, some men quietly retain marriage with a woman back home by which they have borne children, or ask their families members to find a wife, whom they visit periodically before their final return. This is because, a Cameroonian man may come to see marriage to a German woman as a temporary necessity and look to Cameroon for his main family future, he may come to see traditional or at least Cameroonian marriages as the base, and formal marriage in the west as the temporary distortion. (Fleischer,2003). African immigrants may feel inferior due to a mental, physical, social handicap and enter an interracial relationship after determing that acceptance will be found only outside of a culture of birth. A marriage based on this motive may be consciously considered to be a second best or stand-in marriage interracial may be an act of aggression toward another race. Deviance and revenge by one partner can humiliate the in-law. They will either complement this need by feeling personally inferior or angry and rebellious against parents, culture and society (Blau, 1977:31). Leon (1984), suggests that idealism may be a motive ofliberal marrying inter-culturally. Identification with the underdog, an inferiority complex, rebellion, and rescue could be an outgrowth of this idealism. Importance of Interracial Marriages. Throughout history, the structure of interracial relationships has seen a drastic evolution. What once was seen as non-normative and forbidden practice is now seen as common. Specifically speaking, there has been an increase in heterogamous, cross-cultural, relationships. This rise in interracial relationships can be attributed to the reversal of anti-miscegenation laws, the lack of potential mates, the breakdown of segregation, immigration and advancements in technology. These changes in romantic relationships and the transition to marriage have allowed people to explore alternative lifestyles and relationships. Noticeably, interracial romantic relationships and marriages have become commonplace. According to Schwartz (2000:17) an increase in interracial marriages is as a result of immigration, increases the chances of meeting people from different racial backgrounds. For instance, the United States of America is considered a melting pot. The U.S.A. has many different races enmeshed into one society (Schwartz, 2007:23). This has allowed African immigrants to have many different types of romantic relationships/interracial marriages. Immigration has effected the transition into marriage by providing mates from many different backgrounds. Also, immigration has affected many peoples views on marriage by introducing people to new cultures. Interracial marriages among African immigrant is advantageous because it is seem as a gate way to integration and assimilation especially on the part on those immigrants who are being excluded from their societies The degree of social control and the institutionalised discrimination is a function of existing relationships between the majority(host country and minority. An increase in the number of primarily relationship (indicated by interracial marriage) between these groups signals a dissolutions of discriminatory and subordinating practices and less incumbered entrance of minority into social institution of the majority group (Gordon, 1964:35). On the other hand, interracial marriages may indicate a weakening of ethnic cohesion and a loss of highly value ethnic culture (Murguia, 1982). Beaumont (1958[1835]:245), suggests that intermarriages are certainly the best, if not the unique, means of fusing the white and the black races. They are also the most obvious index of equality. While the U.S court of 1873 considered interracial marriages as immoral, others saw it as a cultural betrayal .Opponents of interracial dating contend that those who date or marry outside of their race are betraying their families and abandoning their cultural heritage. Many African immigrants believe interracial marriage erodes the solidarity of the African community. Lawrence Otis Graham feels that interracial marriage undermines [African] ability to introduce our children to black role models who accept their racial identity with pride. Graham also fears that biracial children will turn their backs on their black heritage when they discover that it is easier to live as a white person (cf Sollors, 2000:23-58). On the other hand, proponents of interracial relationships contend that interracial romance is a step towards eliminating racial hatred. According to Mitali Perkins (2007:50), Where exploitation and anger have separated the races in society, an interracial family called by God is a compelling example of the gospel of reconciliation. Yvette Walker believes that Racism . . . will have to be bred out. We cant make policies to change it. And certainly, in an interracial relationship the children are raised in a climate of tolerance. She and others contend that the rising incidence of interracial children will eventually lead to a society where race will no longer matter because everyone will blend into one race, the human race. More importantly, assert many supporters of interracial relationships, colour should not matter when it comes to love. They echo Martin Luther King Jr.s famous sentiment that people should be judged not by the colour of their skin but by the content of their characterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (cf Perkins 2007:206) African immigrants believe that interracial marriages offer the best opportunities for couples and professionals to experience, learn, develop, and educate themselves. Empowerment traits for interracial marriage and intimacy are core ingredients in promoting positive relationships in order that each of the couples families might work towards achieving optimal interracial satisfaction and simultaneously cope with external forces such as nationality, community, family, and individual. (McFadden, 2002:220). In the past, African immigrants were considered as inferior, Buirj (1993:176-179) argued that immigrants are lazy, incompetent, and inefficient because they lack both the cultural and symbolic capital. Michele Lamont (2000) recapitulates the negative feeling toward immigrants and reflects the continuing availability of cultural repertoires stressing the moral failure of immigrants. In the view of historian David Kennedy, in United States on the one hand à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦immigrants were judged to be noble soulsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦whose talents and genius and love of liberty account for the magnificent American character. On the other handà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ [they] were thought to be degraded, freeloading louts, a blight on the national character and a drain on the economyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦(cf Lamont, 2000:105). Scientific opinion at present tends to admit that an African immigrant is not inferior in any essential character of mind; and is approximately equal to other races in his ability to acquire culture (Du Bois, 1899). Despite the long-entrenched, labels to racially categorise African population in history, a trend has emerged towards a more fluid view of racial identification. Schacht and Knox (2000:279) argued that due to an interracial marriage/dating relationship amongst immigrants, there has been a gradual, if not, socially recognised shift in how immigrants are perceived. They have gained recognition. Moreover, interracial relationships are a step toward a more integrated and egalitarian society. For example, the future of Africans belongs to the person who is the product of many different cultures. Through interracial marriage, different cultures will develop their unique identities and come together in harmony. Benefits of interracial marriages would be that an African [immigrant] child would learn more tolerance and respect towards all races. Such children may be open to new ideas, and less hostile regarding ones religious creed or nationality. Many wars are fought over both religion and patriotic fanaticism, and a child of mixed background is not going to really purely identify with either one of the other racial background, thus, the child is less susceptible to being nationalistic to a fanatical degree. (Innocent, Sirefman, 1992). However, interracial marriages enable Africans immigrants to acquire citizenship and to engage in the political affairs of the host country. It is therefore a gateway for immigrants with citizenship status to shape and influence decisions at the national level. Thus, immigrants often view citizenship as crucial for the future prosperity of their children and their immediate relatives. The possibility of reuniting with family members is the major reason for acquiring citizenship. Citizenship also carries with it status and prestige among extended family members in the country of origin. Immigrants who have naturalised tell stories about how parents and relatives at home in Africa boast about their accomplishments. Praise and accolades are given to those who have become citizens (Arthur, 2000:24) Citizenship in other word, affects the shift in the cultural identities of immigrants (Afolabi, Falola, 2008: 49). Furthermore, interracial marriage is seen as strategic for integration and a form of assimilation. Park and Burgess (1969:735) define assimilation as a process of interpenetration and fusion in which person and groups acquire the memories, sentiments and aptitude of other groups and by sharing their experience and history, are incorporated with them in a common life the process of interpenetration is arguably best examplied in intermarriage which is often seen as the final step in the assimilation process. For African immigrants, it is a gate way to better life. Intermarriage is a clear signal that minority groups have adopted the cultural patterns of the host or majority population, such as its language and customs. On the other hand, during the assimilation process, African immigrants tend to lose their distinctive characteristics as they pass through the stages of assimilation, eventually intermarrying with the majority population (Alba 2003; Gordon 1964: 89) Theoretical Framework Using the status exchange theory (Merton, 1941, Davis, 1941), I have argued that interracial marriages would frequently involve an exchange of status characteristics. Highly educated Africa immigrants would trade their educational status in order to reap the benefits associated with the racial status of a potential white spouse. Similarly, whites with low levels of education would trade their racial status for the educational status of a potential black spouse. Consequently, a black-white marriage is likely to involve a black spouse with greater education than the white spouse because these types of individuals would each have something to gain from the union. Interracial marriages involving white spouses with greater education than their black spouses would be much less likely because blacks would have nothing to offer their potential white spouse in return for the white spouse marrying down in terms of race. Both Merton and Davis believed that this process of status exchange was ap plicable only to black male-white female unions because a black mans educational background would be more closely tied to future potential earnings and prestige than would a black womans education. Lacking empirical data to confirm this hypothesis, Merton provided the framework for a future test of the theory. According to Merton, the correct procedure would be to compare the relative frequency of three types of interracial marriage: educationally homogamous unions (Group A), unions in which the white member marries upward (white hyper- gamy) in terms of education (Group B), and unions in which the white member marries downward (white hypogamy) in terms of education (Group C).2 Group B should be the most common type because it involves the expected exchange of status characteristics, and Group C should be the least common type. Numerous scholars have since shown that this test fails because most interracial marriages are educationally homogamous. Individuals have a strong tendency to marry partners of a similar educational background, and this tendency has been increasing over the last half-century (Schwartz and Mare 2005). Thus, to some extend educational status is not the only means used by African immigrants to engaged in interracial relationship but the desire to acquired integration t hrough various means such as citizenship and resident permit is another reason for interracial marriages as already highlighted above. To conclude, in spite some of the miscegenation laws put in placed in the past, the desire to acquired citizenship, resident permits are reason of the that have pushed Africans immigrants to engaged interracial marriages, in order to reap the benefits of the host country in which they find themselves.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Italian Neorealism Essay -- European Cinema

The aim of this report is to discuss Italian Neorealism (Neorealismo); looking at how the movement played a significant element in European cinema during and after the times of Benito Mussolini’s fascist regime. The report not only looks at how but why Neorealism became a growing phenomenon for filmmakers during its debatable 10 year period, and what implication of messages these Neorealist directors were trying to send out through their films. Backed up by several reliable book sources, the evidence for this report will also highlight the influences Neo-realism has created in modern filmmaking today. Before the dawn of Neorealism, Italy was under great turmoil in the early 1920s suffering from major economic crisis, bank failures and a collapsing government, which would also mean a collapse in the Italian film industry and the ‘Silent Era’ of cinema (Roberts, 2005). When Benito Mussolini took control as the 40th Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 the revival of Italian cinema would be once again be relived, but this time ruled under the control and guidance by Mussolini and his fascist government (Bondanella, 2001). It was not until the mid 1930s that the brutish dictator truly recognized the potential power of media, where in 1935 a special funding was given to the production of Italian films which was used to open up film institutions like the ‘Centro Sperimenale di Cinematografia’ (CSC) film school, and ‘Cinecitta’ (Cinema City) studios in 1937 (Ruberto and Wilson, 2007). The development of these institutions sparked the appearance of early sound cinema, specializing in genres such as comedies, melodramas, musicals and historical films, but were all categorized as ‘propaganda’ and ‘white telephone’ films by many critics due... ...echoslovak New Wave, Denmark’s Dogme 95, and British Social Realism, which all can be seen as notable influences from that of Italian Neorealism. Works Cited Roberts, J. (2005), Benito Mussolini, Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. Bonandella, P. (2010), Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present (3rd edn), London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. Ruberto, L.E. and Wilson, K.M. (ed.) (2007), Italian Neorealism and Global Cinema, Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Reich, J. and Garofalo, P. (ed.) (2002), Re-viewing Fascism: Italian Cinema, 1922-1943, Indiana: Indiana University Press. Landy, M. (2000), Italian Film, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sorlin, P. (1996), Italian National Cinema 1896-1996, London: Routledge. Shiel, M. (2006), Italian Neorealism: Rebuilding the Cinematic City, London: Wallflower Press.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Polar Bears Warming Up to Climate Change Essay

The way the earth’s climate has been changing is a very hot topic among scientists today.   Some believe it to be caused by the earth’s natural geothermal development and part of the normal change that the planet should be undergoing. Others contradict these claims by saying that man’s own inventions and improper use of fossil fuels has been aggravating the natural thermal changes.   Environmentalists further urge the general public to act towards helping preserve earth because man’s activities are not only lessening human survival but of his co-planetary habitants as well. Polar Bears’ Hierarchy in the Arctic Kingdom   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polar bears are known to be the world’s largest land predator. (Briggs, 2003, par. 9) Adult females normally weigh 330 to 550 pounds but males can be as heavy as 775 to 1500 pounds. (Polar Bears International, 2008, par. 4)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polar bears, as can be shown in the Food Chain Model below, are on top of the food chain in the arctic regions and feed on ringed seals and walruses. Polar Bear Beluga   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ringed Seal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thick-Billed Murres  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Walrus Bowheaded Whale  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Arctic Cod  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Arctic Tern Zooplankton Source: Assignment Discovery School Lesson Plan, p. 3 Phytoplankton   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although humans have taken it upon themselves to care for their environment, sharing responsibility is not always easy. There used to be concerns between Norway and Russia, as to who should be responsible for the care of the Ursus maritimus or polar bear since they can be found in both countries.   A study made by Mette Mauritzen (2002) and her colleagues used satellite telemetry to obtain data from 105 female polar bears over a dozen of years and the results showed that the different subpopulations in the different locations are all part of one continuous polar bear population.   This means that both countries need to share management responsibility for the species. Global Warming and the Arctic   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Many scientists are saying that the current state of global warming is too fast.   Some say that it will only take around 50 years before the ice in the Arctic will melt while others say it may take around 100 years.   The length of time is irrelevant because the urgency of combating global warming can truly be seen with its predicted and already on-going effects. According to NASA Engineer Josefino C. Comiso (2003), his satellite observations show that the twenty year trend in situ surface temperature is eight times larger than the 100 year trend which means that the sea is warming much faster than normal. He also presumes that by the year 2050, the ice lying over the continental shelf would be displaced into the polar basin. Polar Bears and Global Warming   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to an article written by Eric Chivian (2001) entitled Environment and health:   Species loss and ecosystem disruption — the implications for human health,   global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and the negative results of other man-made activities threaten biodiversity, but it is the degradation, reduction and fragmentation of habitats that is the greatest threat.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to a very extensive study made by Andrew Derocher, Nicholas Lunn and Ian Stirling (2004) entitled Polar Bears in a Warming Climate, factors such as the decreasing area of Arctic Sea Ice, lessened multiyear ice, timing of ice formation or break-up, denning, movements of the bears on the sea ice, quantity of prey, human-polar bear interactions and pollution all combine to threaten the survival of the species. Arctic Sea Ice  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to the IUCN/ Species Survival Commission Polar Bear Specialist Group (2002, pp. 21-35), polar bears have been able to occupy sea ice habitats throughout the Arctic with its population estimated at 21,500 to 25,000. Arctic Sea Ice are used by polar bears to transport themselves over the water to prey on seals.   Lessening the number of arctic ice would greatly affect the food resource of the species. Lessened Multiyear Ice  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to a previous report by Comiso (2002b cited in Derocher, 2004) the ice cover in the Arctic is already declining at the rate of 9% every ten years; which means that the ice may be all gone in just one hundred years. Since polar bears are fully dependent on their icy habitat, losing the ice can lead to their extinction. Timing of Ice Formation and its Break Up   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the basic things that will be affected by global warming would be the cycle of break-up and freezing of the annual ice in the arctic.   Some scientists believe that global warming affects the cycle by making the ice break up earlier annually while delaying its freeze. In Canada’s Western Hudson Bay, the annual ice break-up is observed to be occurring about 2.5 weeks earlier than 3 decades ago. (Stirling, cited in Derocher, 2004) This is important because when the ice breaks sooner, the polar bears have shortened time to feed on seals which can greatly affect the conditions of their bodies throughout the year.   Their bodies would not have been able to get enough of the fat they would need for their four-month fast.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to other studies previously done by Derocher and Stirling (1995b cited in Derocher, 2004), adult polar bears lose around .85 to .90 kilograms of body mass daily during fasts.   With the abrupt breaking of ice that would end feeding period earlier and the delayed freezing, polar bears will lose their weight abnormally due to the longer time they need to fast. Although it may seem trivial, this has a significant effect on the pregnant polar bears.   If these female pregnant polar bears fall beyond 189 kilograms of weight due to the long fasting period, chances of delivering the cub become nil. Denning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Female polar bears have favorite places to den. To reach these places, the ice cycles should be regular to be able to help these bears reach their destinations on time. Also, with the ice melting and making the area farther to swim to, it is becoming difficult for polar bears to reach their favorite locations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are some subspecies that do may not be particular with their den locations because they are able to den on drifting multiyear ice.   These polar bears are currently able to raise the cubs well.   However, with global warming affecting the multiyear ice, these bears may have to be on the floating ice longer than necessary which means more energy wasted.   This can also be detrimental to the cubs which are not yet fully developed and equipped to weather the weary conditions. If this happens, then global warming will affect the population because of the cubs that can be lost due to the conditions mentioned.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For polar bear populations that prefer to go back to their maternity dens, another problem that could threaten their natural activity would be that while the planet warms, the flora and fauna in the area would also be drier making these prone to fire.   Warmer dens with fire-risks are not suitable for pregnant polar bears and their cubs. Movements of Polar Bears on the Sea Ice   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Because of warmer sea temperatures and an increase in sea winds due to global warming, sea ice will thin easily and this may cause this major transportation for polar bears to become unstable or drift faster. If it moves much faster, the species would need to spend more energy in reaching their preferred locations. Although polar bears love to swim, using too much energy can also cause poor health and reproduction for the polar bears. Observations also note that polar bears move to land when sea ice quantity goes below half of its normal number. This could be because more energy is spent moving on top of drifting ice compared to walking on solid icy ground. A decrease in the number of sea ice drifting also lessens the opportunities to hunt for more prey. Availability of Prey   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A decrease in sea ice has its effects on the productivity of seals, which are the main food of polar bears.   Seals rely on sea ice for their maternity activities, lessening the quantity of sea ice drifting due to global warming will also lessen the population of seals.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There were observations in 1979 that warmer temperatures and rain resulted to the easy uncovering of seal pup lairs that made it thrice easier for polar bears to catch them. (Hammil and Smith, 1991 cited in Derocher, 2004) If this can become a trend wherein in warmer temperatures will cause the earlier onset of rain which will wash away the protection of seal pups, then, it is also possible that the population of ringed seals will decline as newborns are given less chances of survival.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polar bears rely on sea ice to be able to catch seals.   Lessening the number of sea ice would also decrease its opportunities to catch the prey.   Very few polar bears have been observed to have enough ability to catch its prey in open waters. The species may have more luck in getting their food when walrus or seals are hauled out on terrestrial habitats but only few individuals of the species are known to have this ability.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another aspect that needs to be discussed is the way the polar bears eat their prey.   The adult male polar bears prefer the blubber of their prey and usually leave much of the protein behind (Stirling and McEwan, 1975 cited in Derocher, 2004) for younger polar bears who are not yet good in catching prey.   With global warming altering the food sources and the way polar bears spend their energy, there will likely be less left-over food for the younger generations of cubs to eat which can decrease the population size. Human Bear Interactions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   So far, human and polar bear interactions have been relatively few because of the difference of habitat these species share.   However, if global warming will cause the ice to melt and lessen the current quantity of food, the bears may have to wander nearer human dwellings for their own chances of survival. However, this can be fatal for both species because humans may have to get rid of the polar bear for protection or else the bear will consider the human its prey.   More human interaction will also increase the polar bears’ exposure to pollutants which can affect its population. Remediation Program   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polar bears have been under the protection of the different governments their habitats are found.   There are already laws in place to ban hunting except for scientific purposes and changes in marine transportation routes to lessen the pollution that can endanger the species.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, global warming is still an issue that can be better addressed by the public.   Although more and more advocates have been trying their best to cause enough awareness about the problem of greenhouse gases, a good remediation program for the polar bears would be dependent on a good program against global warming.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The greenhouse effect of global warming is said to be caused by methane and carbon dioxide which form a layer in the atmosphere.   This layer keeps the heat being produced within the earth from going out of the planet under normal atmospheric circumstances. Carbon dioxide is a natural gas humans and animals excrete when they process oxygen while methane is released into the atmosphere when the earth is being dug up.   Polluted air from vehicles are also carbon dioxide emissions that hasten the greenhouse effect.   There are other sources of global warming such as the destruction of the ozone layer due to man’s use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), over population while decreasing tropical rain forests, etc.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To help stunt the detrimental effects of global warming, people and governments must put aside financial gains and demerits because not only do the polar bears need to survive but man as well. There are already many programs being done by different environmentalists like the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Humane Society of the United States and International fund for Animal Welfare to help lessen the threats on polar bear survival.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Global warming has already been addressed world-wide and one of the agreements that had never been fully implemented is the Kyoto Protocol.   Many countries including the United States and United Kingdom have signed and agreed to the terms of the bargain wherein the member governments will bring down their carbon dioxide emissions to levels safer for humans and other creatures alike.   According to the treaty, these nations would also exchange technologies that could help reverse the problems of global warming.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, the U.S. and other countries failed to implement it and continue to bypass the promises made during the planning of this pact.   Therefore, I believe that remediation programs are already in place but these need the sincerity of governments, especially the ones powerful economically, to succeed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Beyond government efforts, individuals can truly help force governments to fulfill their environmental obligations by lobbying for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and other environmental issues.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2006,   Julius Kenneth Ningu and his colleagues made a report on how the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was creating negative effects on Mexico’s environment. According to the report, the country had good environmental policies in place and the government was strict in implementing it until the agreement forced it into an economic crisis.   In just a few years, the government had to relax on its environmental policies to enable private corporations to weather the economic crisis and for the country to be able to meet the standards of the agreement.   By â€Å"2002, the costs of environmental degradation amounted to 65,934 million dollars but the expenses made to protect the environment was only 3,473 million dollars.† Governments must therefore also be forced to put into place stricter laws that would protect the environment (not only of their own country but of the countries they deal with for capital g rowth).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lessening use of fossil fuel is a must and the public must support the new inventions being made that would help decrease the problem of global warming. Spending more money on machines that produce cleaner air may be more expensive but worthwhile in terms of survival. Scientific Debates   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Polar bears are very cool in their own habitat and naà ¯ve to how scientists continually debate on whether they are going towards extinction or not. Some believe that climate change will not pose substantial problems with polar bear species survival while a relevant population in the scientific community believes that the melting of the ice in these mammals’ habitat will threaten their existence. The U.S. Senate has already debunked the idea that polar bears are going towards extinction because of reports that the polar bear population is at its highest peak as of the current years and that research already shows that the species can was able to withstand the interglacial   period which was much warmer . (US Senate, 2008) Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The survival of polar bears may not be a big issue as of the moment because it can actually be true that they can survive even worse temperatures.   However, global warming is not just an issue worth noting for polar bear survival but for human existence as well.   Governments must find the will to implement the laws that they already know are correct to be able to help all humans survive.   It is only through the sincere will of strong and economically stable governments that a cool change can really be met. References Assignment Discovery School   Lesson Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2008, from   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   tic.pdf. Briggs, H. (2003). Polar Bear ‘Extinct Within 100 Years.’ BBC News, Science/Nature. Retrieved   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   April 2, 2008 from Chivian, E. (2001). Environment and health: 7. Species loss and ecosystem disruption — the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   implications for human health. Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 164 (3). 365-   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   369. Comiso, J. (2003). Warming Trends in the Arctic from Clear Sky Satellite Observations. Journal   of Climate, Vol. (21), pp. 3498-3510. Derocher, A., Lunn, N.J. and Stirling, I. (2004). Polar Bears in a Warming Climate. Integrative   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   and Comparative Biology 2004 44(2),163-176. IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. (2002) In N. J. Lunn, S. Schliebe, and E. W. Born   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (eds.), Polar bears: Proceedings of the 13th Working Meeting of the IUCN Polar Bear   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. Mauritzen, M., Derocher, A.E., Wiig, O., Belikov, S.E., Boltunov, A.N., Hansen, E.,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (2002). Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Journal of Applied Ecology 39 (1) , 79–90. Ningu, J.K., Jacome, J.T., Silva Gomez, S.E. and Aviles, R.P. (2006). The Effects of North   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   America Free Trade Agreement on Mexican Environmental Policy (1994-2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   American Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 2(1). Pp. 5-8. Polar Bears International. (2008). About the Polar Bear. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee. (2008). U.S. Senate Report Debunks Polar Bear Extinction Fears. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from index.cfm?FuseAction=Minority.Facts&ContentRecord_id=cb2faa9c-802a-23ad-4bcc- 29bb94ceb993.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge essays

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge essays The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1960 in northeastern Alaska to protect and maintain its naturally functioning community of arctic and sub-arctic ecosystems. A variety of wildlife, including 36 fish species, 36 kinds of land mammals, over 160 bird species, and 9 marine animals, reside in this protected area. However, beneath this beautiful land, is a black gold mine. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that below the permafrost of the 1.5 million-acre coastal plain, lies 11-31 billion barrels of oil. This has lead to a constant fight over oil drilling vs. wildlife preservation and conservation. Oil industry representatives argue that the demand for energy, and high prices of gasoline and heating oil, justify exploiting the refuges oil resources. Oil drilling in ANWR will have a variety of negative effects on its delicate ecosystem including disruption of wildlife patterns, noise, pollution, and alteration of the land. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge was created to protect and maintain the lands relatively undisturbed condition, and thus oil drilling should not be allowed in this protected area. The oil industry believes that the amount of oil located in the Arctic Refuges 1002 area is a substantial amount, and is a resource that should be exploited. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated in 2000 that there is a 95% chance of finding 1.9 billion barrels of economically recoverable oil in the 1002 area. At the current price of $24 a barrel, there is a 50% chance of finding a nine months supply of oil (Potential, 5). Rather than deplete the oil resources in Alaska as well as endanger habitat and wildlife for nine months of domestic oil consumption, the United States should look into other sources of fuel. Natural gas, solar power, and hydroelctric power, are forms of energy that can be taken advantage of. The United States could also look into lowering consum...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Tough Guise Essays

Tough Guise Essays Tough Guise Paper Tough Guise Paper In the film Tough Guise, featuring Jackson Katz it touched on the topic violent males or violent masculinity. Jackson Katz reviewed that about 86 percent of armed rob berries, 90 percent of murders, 99 percent of rapes and 98 percent of violence on women are all committed by men. When we talk about violence in America, whether its mass shootings in the r ell world or violence in our movies, media and video games, were almost always talking a bout violent auscultation. Says Jackson Katz from the Tough Guise video. Also (Katz,2014) in the video it says that the statistics tell the story, the overwhelming majority of violence ilk e; sexual assault, mass shootings, murder, and domestic violence resulting in physical injury, is committed by men and boys. ( Katz,2014) . Now (Katz,2014) this is not because all men are violent. Most men arent, or dont mean to be. Most of these crimes take place because these boo yes were taught that they needed to be violent to be mas culine. This is not the boys fault, it is the way our society is. They see males taking the lead role all over our society. I feel that boys and you Eng men learn early on that being a scalded man mean you have to take on a tough guy imam GE. Men are basically taught to only show the world a certain part of themselves, they are not allowed to show their emotions. (Katz, 2014) All for this dominant culture that has defined being manly as; being physically strong, powerful, physically intimidating, independent, in con troll, and that they an scare people. Also Katz says, If they are athletic or muscular they are see n as the top dog. All of these traits are seen as guidelines to be a real man that is respected. The e media nowadays is showing our culture that being violent is equivalent to being masculine. I would disagree with this topic. I understand fully that if you see something everyday you tend to feel that, that is the way of life and how you should also act. Howe ever also feel that you should know what is right and what is wrong. Therefore if you see a man rutting another male or female to get what he wants you shouldnt take that has, that man bee Eng masculine. You should instead take that as being wrong. Therefore I believe that violent masc. linty is not a taught behavior but a chosen behavior with that excuse.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Governmet's Indian Policy in 1930s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Governmet's Indian Policy in 1930s - Essay Example The romantic in Winston Churchill had an unbreakable emotional attachment with India as a part of the British Empire. This is very evident in what Louis Mountbatten had to say of Winston Churchill to Archibald Wavell who was then the Viceroy of India: "And he also disputed the idea of any advance (of autonomy) in India because he has got a very emotional feeling about India; he was there as a young subaltern the Fourth Hussars in 1897 or something of the sort. To him India is Kipling, it is polo, it is soldiering, it is glamour, it is everything. He doesn't want to see that go away and he thinks, in some ways quite rightly, that India is happier under British Rule." The intrinsic factor combined with extrinsic factors such as economic and political influences, requirements and his motives of the times. Thus, in his stand against granting more autonomy to India, we find different shades and hues of the character and personality of Sir Winston Churchill. The 1930s were the 'Wilderness Years' for Winston Churchill. He was out of the Government, and naturally desperate to get back. During the period he had raised a string of issues, or rather, he had raised the alarm over several incidents or happenings that he perceived and propagated as threats but were disproved as false alarms by his detractors. These included what he considered as the threat from Bolshevik Russia; the destabilizing force of the General Strike of 1926, the crippling effect that the loss of India could have both on the empire and India itself; and the abdication crisis of 1936. The consequence was that Churchill began to be considered more of an alarmist, that he lacked knowledge or insight of the practical situation on the ground, that he was a rabble-rouser, more so in the case of his tirades against granting more autonomy to India as envisaged in the 1935 India Act. Judith M Brown echoes the same opinion: British officials who had experienced the 1919 constitutional experiment, the Simon Commission debacle and civil disobedience knew they had to conciliate a widening range of Indian political opinion and to harness it to the process of government. Even Wellington's administration which refused to 'deal' or 'treat' with Gandhi in 1932-3 realized that Ordinance rule and smashing the congress organization was only a temporary solution. At the turn of 1931-2 Wellington had unsuccessfully tried to extract from London greater freedom in appointing his Executive Council, partly to enable him to admit more Indians as a counterpoise to the draconian policies adopted to crush civil disobedience. He argued that he could not use the big stick unless he could demonstrate real movement towards more Indian political responsibility Given such messages from the men on the spot, only the die-hard wing of the Tory Party led by Churchill and Salisbury, backed by the Rathermore Press opposed a reform package. For reasons of ideology and party strategy, they belaboured the National Government's attempts to produce a reform package. (Brown pp.275 - 276) She goes on to add: Churchill was bitterly hostile to Indian aspirations and given to tirades in Cabinet about the maintenance

Saturday, November 2, 2019

The Role Of Contemporary War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Role Of Contemporary War - Essay Example They were also employed as air raid wardens, members of the fire service and also in various voluntary jobs helping their community to get through the war. The services of women are not required only during the war but even after an armed conflict, as they frequently play a key role in the rebuilding of the communities. Usually, in rural areas, they are the chief beneficiaries of the supply of tools, seeds, and livestock to support economic security in the wake of a war. Women also play a significant part in preventing injury from and raising awareness of, landmines, which may continue to cause harm and death to children after the end of hostilities. There is growing acknowledgment that women and children play multiple roles during the conflict. They are not only victims who face violence at the hands of the enemy and sometimes their own people, but can also be active participants in the war, directly as combatants, or indirectly, by facilitating fighting through fundraising or stirr ing their male relatives to commit acts of bravery required at the times or wars. During the war, women often become heads of households; women and children learn new skills and play a part in rebuilding local economies and communities and peacemaking (Lindsay, n.d.). There has always been a need for women to assist with the war efforts. But historically, they were never allowed to join the military. Women helped as nurses and cooks; in short, they were never at the forefront but assisted the men behind the scenes.