Monday, September 30, 2019

Casino Industry Essay

Find out why the Macau gambling scene is so important -The company intends to use the proceeds from this sale to pay off part of their debt -â€Å"The stock has traded significantly higher since the announcement of the deal, but we believe that this is a huge missed opportunity for the company in a new, booming market and will hurt the company over the long-term as competition continues to expand in this area† (2). -Caesars is the largest casino operator in the U.S -Properties include: Las Vegas, Atlantic City, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, and several other states More on the Macau opportunity, this may be a little outdated: -Only major casino company without a location Macau -â€Å"Caesars bought the 175-acre site in 2007 for $578 million, with plans to develop a hotel and casino, but the company did not apply in the early 2000s for one of the limited number of gambling licenses in Macau, and it never gained a gambling concession from the Macau government† (2) -â€Å"As of July 31, 2013, growth in Macau has increased to over 20% on a year over year basis boosted by an increase in the number of Chinese visitors to the country’s only legal casino gambling hub. July’s 29.5 billion patacas ($3.7 billion) revenue was the third strongest figure this year, according to government data, as more middle-class gamblers visited Macau, eclipsing the growth in the number of high rollers. The slowdown in China’s economic growth has kept away some wealthy customers, who often spend 1 million yuan ($160,000) per bet, but it failed to push away Macau’s appeal for China’s rapidly expanding middle-class and their higher disposable incomes† (2) →what are pacatas Why Maccau Is Attractive for Casino Industry -The number of visitors to Macau rose 4.2 percent during the first half of the year (in 2013) -â€Å"Visitors form mainland China, who account for two thirds of the total numbers, soared 20 percent in July year over year numbers. High rollers account for about 70 percent of gaming revenues, but the share of the middle-class gamers is growing at a much faster rate and Macau’s casinos are trying to diversity entertainment options to attract more of these visitors† (2) -Minimum table bets start at around 300 patacas  ($38), compared to a year ago when offering bets for 100-200 patacas ($20) -â€Å"In the end, investors should not have seen the sale of this property as a catalyst for the stock, but instead as the huge missed opportunity to diversify the company’s core business and expand into an explosive new market† (2) -because the stock price went up when they sold Macau location -Macau casinos and hotels are now showing strong September gaming revenue -à ¢â‚¬Å"At the current rate, gambling revenue for the month of September so far is tracking 25.7% higher than the same month a year ago. Macau generates annual gambling revenue topping $38 billion, larger than any other casino district in the world, about five times the annual take of U.S. gambling in Las Vegas† (3) -Macau, a special gaming district on China’s southern coast, is the only place in China where gambling is legal – -â€Å"We believe that the run up in CZR shares has been on the coattails of the other gaming and hotel companies and that the buying has been way overdone. Investors should loko for the stock to pull back substantially after the recent rally† →research if all of this stuff is still true The most Recent Quarter- Focusing On the Important Aspects of This Business -Most recent quarter is Q2, net revenue was reported by Caesars as $2.2 billion -A decline in casino revenue was â€Å"largely offset by increases in F&B, rooms, and managed revenue† -â€Å"The company attributes this decline to a combination of macroeconomic conditions, competition, and a shift in marketing strategy. The company has lost market share in gaming to competition, despite the company’s positioning with the World Series of Poker brand† (4) ^ this is about gaming competition -Alpha research believes that revenue and profits have peaked and will be on the decline next year (2014), they were correct -Income form operations: $125.3 million in 2013, down $63.8 million compared to the prior year, 33.7% decline was driven by higher asset impairment charges (learn more on this) -â€Å"Adjusted EBITDA declined 8.2% to $470.5 million and property EBITDA declined 4.9% to $492.8 million compared with the year-earlier period† (4) -Investors should focus on the lower gaming revenue -â€Å"Casino revenue in Las Vegas declined approximately 15.5% year-over-year, primarily due to loss of market share and visitors and weaker gaming volumes† (4) -The same trends are occurring in the Atlantic City region -Gaming revenue was down due to lower visitation driven by primarily new competitive threats -CZR market volume in Atlantic city has declined, and market share has declined overall →my suggestion is that they should look more to online gaming, because technology and internet are booming, maybe consider joining with another casino industry- why is competition doing better -The company is facing increased competition in certain areas like Louisiana/Mississippi, Tunica, and Las Vegas and Atlantic City -Find specific competitors -Problem: â€Å"The company’s investments in current properties and new construction may prove to be too little, too late, as the projects have become increasingly costly over the last two years† The Debt Burden→ get more up to date information -At the quarter end (Q2 2013) for Caesars Entertainment, Inc. was $23.7 billion. -Debt, net of $1.8 billion of cash, was $20.9 billion -Total debt repurchased was only around $275 million during last quarter -Reports of a possible bankruptcy, have been increasing since Moody’s downgraded the company’s credit rating to one of its lowest levels in April 2013 -Cash flow growth is not expected to increase in 2013, â€Å"as a result of a demand drop fueled by customers spending less at casinos† (5) -Major concern because competitors gaming revenue are continuing to thrive -â€Å"The company has consistently poured money into new construction and the remodeling of existing structures, but significant measures need to be taken in order to improve the company’s current capital structure. If the company cannot spur major cash flow generation over the course of the next year, the company will be facing some major problems in early 2015 -Why is January 2015 important? Because that is when $4.4 billion of mortgage-backed securities are scheduled to mature for CZR (figure out more what this means) â †’ opportunity, cash flow generation, how? Competitors are outbeating them -Recent report from July 2013, Caesars planned to beef up its product  offering in Las Vegas and enter in the Maryland casino market, breaking group in Baltimore Major Areas of Concern for the Future: (direct quotes) -No unique value proposition built on approach, scale, geographic reach, brands and loyalty -Not positioned to drive value creation and significant revenue upside -Huge investments made in trying to expand core of business—declining revenues in many areas of business will lead to serious problems if the capital structure is not re-vamped by 2015 -Not executing on development pipeline, expanding domestic distribution and social/mobile gaming platform—the company claims that social gaming has a bright future, but the uncertain regulatory condition on a state and federal level pose a serious threat to the future of this revenue source -Failure to capitilze on pipeline while competitors continue to thrive on an international level (failure in Macau and Korea are significant) -Failed focus on managing costs and improving capital structure -Sustained economic recovery has not provided an additional tailwind to the efforts of the company COMPETITORS: EPS Change (%), Sales growth % CZR: -92.74, .16 WYNN: -1.34, -2.19 LVS: 18.29, 18.28 MGM: -165.10, 16.71 →large concern is the significant decline in EPS and sales growth over the recent history for CZR and at such a fast rate -â€Å"Considering the country has been seeing an economic recovery, consumer spending on gaming and entertainment in Las Vegas has not kept up. With no exposure to Macau, CZR will continue to underperform its peers in the future. The company’s current strategy is failing domestically and trying to transition to anything internationally is impossible. The EPS Change of -92.74% and 0.16% Sales Growth is just the beginning of a negative trend for Caesars. With massive amounts of debt and important maturity dates approaching, investors should look for a significant decline in shares as nervousness continues to build.† (5) -Based on the cash flow and margins, the quality of the most recent CZR earnings quarter was very poor overall -Negative cash flow per share: company is borrowing a significant amount of money to keep operating, and at some point the banks will stop lending and want to be repaid –bad position -â€Å"Cash is king† and companies that don’t generate cash are not around for a long time Problem: no cash flow -major debt obligations are due in 2015 and they have no cash, running out of time USE ALL THE CHARTS FROM THIS PDF! Very good for 2013 competitors, etc Potential Bankruptcy: -Important to look to the Book Value/ Share of CZR -this indicates the dollar value remaining for common shareholders after all assets are liquidated and all debtors are paid Financial Strength -Look at PDF -Use of leverage can be a double-edged sword for companies -â€Å"In the case for CZR, it has tried to generate returns above its cost of capital, for investors benefits. However, with the added risk of the debt on tis books, CZR is a company that has been hurt by this leverage and is unable to generate returns above the cost of capital. The company’s losses have been and will continue to be magnified by the use of leverage in the company’s capital structure, while they continue to renovate existing properties and continue with new construction domestically. With $20.91 B of long-term debt and a large debt to equity ratio of 1.04, Caesars will need to significantly overhaul their capital structure if they want to compete and survive in this highly competitive industry† (6) →compute d/e current ratio for 2014, google their financial statements Problem: too much debt, no cash -ROA: -4.44%, the company cannot operate efficiently based on the firm’s generated profits from total assets

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Universities should prepare students better to work

Newest reports are not certain if students are prepared to work. Job market isn't getting any easier for them and too many students are graduating from college unprepared. Reason for this situation is that universities aren't giving students the right guidance. Colleges should have better qualified career-center staff gulled their students and help them with future choices.However those people should have some experience hen it comes to giving advice. Having inexperienced people in career-center is a huge problem for students who end up getting advice from not qualified people who have never done any actual hiring themselves and don't have a first-hand understanding of what employers are looking for. On the other hand In colleges students can have work placement during their studies and unalterably can provide them or support students during them.What colleges really need is talking about careers before graduation in order to get dead for Job and be sure what they're going to do. Man y people pick their major without nothing anything about it or not fully understand it and they don't have a clear view about their obligations in workplace. On the other hand students can learn those things during Internship and experience It by themselves and start to learn from simple things at the begging and then be fully Independent and skilled. Practice Is the best form of learning and gives many advantages for the future career.Help students understand that a degree alone won't get them a Job. Too many students graduate with the belief that their degree will lead straight to a Job-setting the stage for a painful wake-up call when they realize that In most fields, a degree Is simply a Romulus qualification, not an Instant pass to easy employment. Nowadays more and more people have a degree (in our country 48,5 % odd population) , in order to get a Job graduates should have other additional abilities for example : foreign languages .On the other hand if student is really good in that one thing he can get a bob without graduating and potential employer can contact him and offer an interesting Job offer. Sometimes abilities speak for themselves and students can receive a Job offer without any experience. Some people will claim that universities should better prepare students to work and it is not only up for students what they are going to carry out from college and how effective it will be . Students should have good take care of them and should have support how they need to ,because college Is only a beginning of entire journey for

Friday, September 27, 2019

Theories of Parenting ( Baumrind, Maslow, Adler and Erikson) Assignment

Theories of Parenting ( Baumrind, Maslow, Adler and Erikson) - Assignment Example This kind of parents demands little attention from their children and make consultations, on principal family matters. This is a wrong step in trying to raise children as the parents normally consult even on insightful matters meant for adults. Permissive parent families give forth to children who are mutinous, impetuous and aggressive with other children. In as much as such children fell part of the family, they have self-esteem, which might drive them to poor performance in schools. Consequently, Baumrind portrays other parent families as authoritative. The family has characteristics of using stringent and positive means of correcting children. Discipline is the key education of children in this family as it uses little punishment methods while considering their feelings and emotional states (King, 2009). Authoritative parents require mature children of independent behavior and limited curiosity. The main principle behind authoritative parents is the fact that the parents value ins trumental and expressive qualities to raise their children. The family gives forth to proficient children at school mainly due to external pressure but not self-esteem. The king of behavior results into low self-esteem and emotional instability often characterize by depression. Closely associated with authoritative parents are the authoritarian parents whose main expectation from their children is obedience. These parents have rules governing their subjected to their children whereby minute misbehavior, are not negotiable. They follow a given social structure with the parent say becoming a law to the children. Such children become obedient in life although characterized by low self-esteem, as they cannot conduct what they desire. Subsequently, uninvolved parents also exist as proposed by Baumrind. These parents get portrayed as rejecting, careless and nonintermittent parents who do not mind what and where their children are at given time. This is due to emotional settings about the children or lack of time. Uninvolved parents give forth to mislead children as they often turn to other people for advice. Consequently, the children are a subject of abuse from outsiders due to the carelessness of the parents (King, 2009). Apart from Baumrind, Maslow is another psychologist who conducted intensive research in parenting. He highlighted various conditions, which if met by parents, they are likely to raise moral children. According to him, there are principal considerations parents need to take into consideration. To start include basic psychological needs like sleep water, food, water, clothing as well as shelter. When the psychological needs are not met, children often, rear away from their normal behavior into other means of realizing such basic needs. Apart from psychological basic needs, esteem needs also raise attention. These include respect from ether sides. Consequently, self-actualization through various standards also becomes a key consideration towards rai sing a strong family. The children should have recognition for reality, autonomist as well as self-evaluation of various phenomena. This is also applicable to parents who must express love, security, belongingness, safety and concern for others. Adler institute is another body, which has conducted diverse research on child parenting to come up with development maturities suitable for competent and efficient parents. Some of the qualities Adler

Reflective evaluation of your teaching with recommendations Assignment

Reflective evaluation of your teaching with recommendations - Assignment Example Nursing is a sub-branch of medicine and hence requires students to be cautious and ready to handle emergencies in the health institution. The work load can be overwhelming for students in the nursing profession. It is, therefore, crucial that students should be well armed with knowledge on how to handle pressure in the work setting. The proficiency of a student in any profession reflects back to the tutor. This is the reason why teachers should be in a better position to transfer knowledge to students to enhance their ability to take care of patients. As mentioned, nursing is associated with saving of human lives, and this is the reason why a lot of caution should be taken when dealing with students in the profession. It should be made sure that the students are well behaved and disciplined because dealing with human lives is extremely sensitive. It is important for teachers to discourage behaviours that show a negative attitude in the profession of nursing. Intoxication by the abuse of drugs and alcohol are some of the prevalent behaviours with students at the college level. These behaviours should not be tolerated because once students in medicine engage in such behaviour, the health safety of the patients would be at risk. Stringent measures should hence be put in place to ensure that students do not jeopardise the health status of patients in the health centres. The Significance of Managing Acute Post-Operative Pain The clinical environment is one of the most sensitive ones in many health care institutions. Post-operative pain is some of the acute problems that face patients who are from surgical operations (Archer, Levy, & McGregor, 1993). Teachers should hence take initiative of ensuring that the students have the necessary knowledge and skills of handling acute post-operative pain in patients. This would ensure that the welfare of the patients is given priority. Surgical patients may face a lot of complications and this is the reason why students should be ready to handle such complications. The management of post-surgical pain is essential because it might be very severe and hence affect the health status of the patient. As a teacher, one should initiate highlighting the importance of managing acute post-operational pain. One of the strategies that should be involved in the teaching practice would be to give the negative impacts of this pain (Brown, Christo, & Wu, 2004). One of the negative impacts of acute post-operative pain is increased mortality or morbidity. Once students know that this pain can place the patient’s life at risk, the students would be ready to learn the different courses of action that should be taken in handling the pain. From medical research studies, surgery is known to suppress the immune system of the patient (V. Bullough & B. Bullough, 1999). This implies that the patient is more prevalent to opportunistic infections, hence high chances of mortality. With this knowledge, teachers should go the ext ra mile and provide a variety of corrective courses of action to safeguard the health status of the patient. One of the control strategies that should be proposed by the teachers is analgesia. Effective analgesia can counter the negative effects of acute post-operational pain. There is a variety of medications that should be administered to the patient. The teacher in charge of the students

Thursday, September 26, 2019

University education should be free Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

University education should be free - Essay Example University education should be free because it is; the fundamental right of every citizen, a motivator for seeking higher education, and morally justified. University education should be free because higher education is the fundamental right of every citizen. In a society where an individual’s future is jeopardized if he/she drops out of school earlier, university education becomes a necessity rather than an option. Despite the growing economy, there are hundreds of applicants for every job advertised. University education makes the applicants stand out whereas other resumes are dropped without even being considered. Providing free university education also maximizes the ability of the people to get employed in foreign countries easily and send money to their home-country in remittance. Remittance improves economy and is essential for the well-being of the society. Free university education motivates people to get educated to their maximum potential. Many people drop out of colleges because they cannot afford further education. Even some of the most intelligent, hardworking, and capable students are left with no choice but to abort further education because of their lack of ability to afford it. Many students even end up choosing the careers contrary to their natural aptitude because the field they want to get education in is simply too expensive for them to afford. They have to deal with the consequences of choosing the wrong career throughout their lives. If university education is made free, the financial factor will be eliminated from the equation and people will make informed decisions about their careers considering their capabilities and desires. Costly university education is not justified from an ethical point of view. Ideally, the very person enjoying a facility should be the one paying for it. But in the present times, parents have to bear the financial burden of their children’s schooling. Parents have been spending

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Allied Health, Information and Informed Consent Essay

Allied Health, Information and Informed Consent - Essay Example Multidisciplinary care ensures that the team members are able to discuss every aspect of psychological and physical needs of each patient. Multidisciplinary care approach fulfils the best and evidence-based practices for all the patients (Pozgar, 2012) The multidisciplinary care is carried out since it represents the best practice of treatment planning for the patients. It entails a focus on continued care, the development of relevant referral networks that include appropriate pathways to enhance the psychological needs, the development of protocols and pathways for care and treatment. It includes the patients whose cases are discussed by multidisciplinary team. Effective multidisciplinary care entails the improved coordination of the services, great opportunities for participation in clinical trials, improvement in treatment planning and outcomes, improvement in information sharing between the multidisciplinary team members, enhanced management and detection of the patients psychological and emotional needs, and the improved functioning of the team (Pozgar, 2012). The multidisciplinary care has been incorporated in the national clinical practice frameworks, guidelines, frameworks and plans. The multidisciplinary team is focused in treatment planning where the health professionals meet and recommend a treatment plan. Not all the professional treat the patient; as a result, the issues on liability if the patient’s condition worsened derail the multidisciplinary approach. As a result, before any multidisciplinary approach, they had to be the consent of the patient prior to the multidisciplinary meeting, the meeting outcomes should be documented, and the liability implication of the professional team members depended on recommendations of the individual practitioner (Magee, Laroche & Gilligan, 2001). Patients should be informed about the multidisciplinary procedures and meetings, and they should have the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

E-Practice of Medicine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

E-Practice of Medicine - Essay Example The company prides itself on offering excellent prices for its goods and heavily advertises this feature of its business. Clearance items can be purchased for as much as 80% off of the suggested retail price. The company also offers a savings club for regular purchasers that allows them to realize substantial discounts. ( Customer service is offered via email, live chat, and a toll free phone number. Agents are available from 8 a.m. until 10 p.m. EST Monday through Friday, and 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. EST on Saturdays. ( Ensuring secure data transmission is a priority for the company. Dr. Leonard’s contracts with Verisign ( to ensure that ordering information is protected from hackers and other information pirates. McAfee Security has evaluated the site and awarded it McAfee SecureClub status for the level of protection it offers for customers performing online transactions. ( According to the firm’s customer base is in the millions. Aside from the main web page and printed catalog, it also has a network of affiliated web sites that link to Site owners earn an 8% commission on sales that result from visitors clicking on the link. Dr. Leonard’s is a member of the Better Business Bureau of New Jersey, according to It holds accredited status with the organization and enjoys an excellent record of satisfying its customers. Dr. Leonard’s customer base is primarily persons in their 40s and older. Their income levels range from below average to slightly above, with a small number in high income brackets. A large proportion are elderly and retired, and many live in rural areas with limited access to local shopping. They tend to be married, conservative in lifestyle and values, and enjoy purchasing items via mail order and online. Analysis of the company’s product line shows that its

Monday, September 23, 2019

There should not be state sales taxes assessed on Internet purchases Essay

There should not be state sales taxes assessed on Internet purchases - Essay Example However, this aspect of sales tax free goods is not available in many states or countries. It has been observed that in many states of the United States of America (US), the consumers making online purchases are required to pay the requisite sales tax amount in their respective state tax agency. This prospect of providing tax free goods or products has hampered the revenue of the government as well as the brick-and-mortar retail outlets which are providing identical goods and services by minimizing their sales volume and customer base (FindLaw, â€Å"Do You Have to Pay Sales Tax on Internet Purchases?†). It has been observed that in the US, law has been formulated as well as implemented with the intention of collecting sales taxes for the shopping which are made online. In this respect, the Marketplace Fairness Act has been formulated with the intention of collecting sales tax in relation to online transactions which are performed within states. Moreover, this Act allows an ex emption for online retailing businesses with less than US$1 million domestic sales annually (Yadron, â€Å"Lawmakers Reintroduce Online Sales Tax Legislation†). Thesis Statement The paper intends to describe the issue i.e. whether or not sales taxes should be assessed on the purchase of goods through internet. The discussion will identify the major aspects with regard to the issue. Moreover, certain supporting opinions will be provided regarding the issue with facts as well as logic. Objective Description of the Issue The sales taxes on the purchases which are made through online sources are dependent on the location of the consumer. The Supreme Court in the year 1992 made rules that online retailers who have a physical presence in the states are charged with sales taxes on most of the purchase transactions made. In this aspect, online retailers are obliged to charge sales tax for the goods which are sold to home state consumers. In case, when goods are sold to consumers in o ther states then such consumers can acquire these goods without any sales taxes (FindLaw, â€Å"Do You Have to Pay Sales Tax on Internet Purchases?†). It has been observed that there are many large websites which are performing business transactions free of sales taxes by inaugurating subsidiaries with the intention of performing only the online businesses. It is also recognized that they perform online business transactions without physical presence. The above mentioned practice of online businesses is required to be mitigated with the objective of assisting the online businesses with physical presence that are losing sales volume due to online shops which are providing goods at free sales taxes (FindLaw, â€Å"Do You Have to Pay Sales Tax on Internet Purchases?†). The consumers purchasing tax free goods from online sources are required to pay sales tax to the agency in a direct manner where sales taxes are charged in their states. In case, where the consumers pay sal es tax directly to the sales tax agency are termed as ‘use’ tax. The only difference between sales tax and use tax is regarding the paid tax amount. In terms of sales tax, the tax amount is directly paid by online retailers to the sales tax agency. While, in case of use tax, the tax amount is paid by consumers themselves. Moreover, collecting use tax for small purchases tends to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Living as a Christian disciple Essay Example for Free

Living as a Christian disciple Essay Explain how living as a Christian disciple may influence the lives of Christians today. Christianity is an entire way of life. Its not only a part of your life it is your whole life. It is a sense of being with God. It is not a one way system, but in fact a two way bond. Being a disciple of God gives you a sense of who you are. You have the position of being part of Gods children as well as being a child of your parents. This is an incomparable feeling. A Christian is a person who lives their life daily for God. By praying on a regular basis, reacting positively not negatively with people and being an optimistic person rather than a pessimistic one. Christianity focuses a lot on how people treat others. Christianity believes everyone is equal. Nobody is better than someone else, even if they are richer. A disciple believes Christ is with you at all times. To become a Christian you must try and be the best you can be. An example of this would be the story about the Pharisee and the tax collector, having the best humanity. To develop into a Christian you need to know the principles. You need to live your life a certain way. That means you might have to sacrifice a few things but in the long run you will be rewarded. Again you must know how to deal with people. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and, Love your neighbour as yourself. (Luke 10 vs. 27) A person needs to be willing to give up luxuries in order to gain better things. For instance a Christian must give 10% of their total income to either a church or a charity. But the more essential factor is time. Time is more precious than rubies. Time must be taken out of your day to think about God or even the elderly lady next door who lives all alone. Your attitude towards people is very important. Being a Christian affects what career you wish to pursue. Certain professions are considered unethical and therefore are not allowed. A job such as working in an abortion clinic, you are taking away a life which has a right to live, which is unjust. Another job which gives people grief is a traffic warden. A Christian has an important role to play in the family and in the home. There must be peaceful negotiation and they must always remember that children usually learn from the examples of their parents. So as a parent you must do good things and not bad. You must know how to function in a family. To be a dedicated Christian you are required to visit the church on a regular basis and to pray daily. At church Christians have communion, usually once a week. This is red wine and bread which s also called the Eucharist. The Eucharist is the ceremony in which Christs last meal with his disciples is celebrated with bread and wine, the bread symbolizes Jesus body and the wine Jesus blood. Although some Christians do not believe in going to church for example, Quakers and the Salvation Army. Quakers are Christians who do not have set services or have no ceremonies and do not do repeated rituals. The Salvation Army consider that you should be careful and make sure that ceremonies do not become more important than the meaning of the belief or faith. Also the Salvation Army do not drink any alcohol as when they first started the group alcohol was a serious problem, therefore they are not allowed to have communion as it involves wine. There are many noble Christians who have acted as excellent role models, in the past and in the present day. Some of these famous Christian disciples are Oscar Romero, Mother Teresa, Martin Luther King, Desmond Tutu and many more. I am going to tell you about Desmond Tutu. Desmond Tutu was born in 1931 on the 7th October. He lived in South Africa, a society where coloured people were considered as outcasts, a racist system of apartheid. They had to learn from an early age that their needs were considered less important than the needs of white people. They were not allowed to mix with the white people. For example black children could not go to the same school as a white child and at all times black people had to carry their passbooks to show who they were and if they had a right to be where they were, they also were not allowed to go into cafes or go to beaches and parks. In the street white police officers would look them up and down as if they were criminals. It was hard for children to grow up watching parents and role models being humiliated in this way. Desmond Tutu went to an all black school. He worked willing and was therefore intelligent. He was a kind and gentle boy. At the age of 14 Desmond got Tb. He was put in hospital for 2 years. An English priest called Father Trevor Huddleston visited him every week. Trevor Huddleston had been trying to make the lives of the black people better. He believed apartheid was evil and very unchristian. He opened hostels and nurseries for homeless people o stay in at night. He also defended black people when they were challenged by the police. A life long friendship blossomed between Desmond and Trevor. During his stay in hospital Desmond became more thoughtful and reflective. He had a strong commitment towards Christianity and a spiritual approach to life. Desmond was influenced by humility, gentleness, selflessness from spiritual people like Trevor. After leaving school Desmond decided train as a teacher. He worked as a teacher for a few years but he couldnt stand there and watch his people suffer. He wanted to do something about it. So he left teaching and became a priest. In 1961 Desmond was ordained as a priest. He was given his own parish church and a proper house in an area of slum housing. It was rewarding work, a satisfying job with people who loved him having him as their priest. In 1962 he was offered to go to London to study for a second degree in theology. When he got there he couldnt believe that he was allowed to walk freely and not have to check for signs where they were not allowed. He wasnt searched by police; he didnt have to carry a passbook around with him. He loved it. After 3 years when he returned to South Africa, he found it difficult being a second class citizen again. From the understanding of the Bible he saw that Christianity stresses that all people are equal and that God wants people to be free. As a Christian he felt it was his responsibility to help black people become equal with white people. Two years later Desmond took a job in England. In 1975 he was given the post of Dean in Johannesburg. If he accepted it then this meant he would have to move back to South Africa. This post had always been held by white men so he wanted to make a change and accepted the post. The cathedral had a racially mixed congregation and clergy. Desmond bought in changes to the worship including shaking hands, hugging and kissing your neighbour on the cheek which made many fell more comfortable. In 1978 wealthier black people were starting to be allowed into a few public places but the community as a whole were kept as second class citizens. In one of Desmonds speeches he dramatically promised to burn his Bible on the day that he was proved wrong about apartheid being an evil. Another thing Desmond said in one of his speeches was, At home in South Africa I have sometimes said in big meetings where you have black and white together, look at your hands-different colours representing different people. You are the rainbow people of God. And you remember the rainbow in the Bible is the sign of peace. The rainbow is the sign of prosperity. We want peace, prosperity and justice and we can have it when all the people of God, the rainbow people of God, work together. In 1984 he was awarded in the Nobel Peace Prize in America. Soon the whole world came to see Desmond as a symbol for the fight against apartheid. In 1986 he was further promoted to Archbishop of Cape Town, the first black man to hold this post. In 1989 F.W De Klerk became president. The ban on ANC and PAC was lifted symbolising freedom for all black South Africans after so many years of suffering. In 1993 exclusive white rule finally ended. The result of the first democratic election was that in 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black South African president. By 1996 there was a new constitution aimed at creating a full racial equality and harmony. The hardest challenge facing bereaved families was not only to forgive those whom had caused their suffering, but to make sure that forgiveness was complete and unconditional as with Christian love. This would mean the new South Africa could grow from strong roots, unaffected by blame and bitterness. I think Desmond Tutu was a good Christian disciple as he helped the black people of South Africa. He bought equality in South Africa which is what God says. He is helping others and spreading the good word of God. He is determined and will not give up when things get tough. Another example of a good Christian disciple is a man called Oscar Romero. He was born in Ciudad Barrios, El Salvador in 1917. He was a Catholic man. He thought the best way to help people would be to serve God as a priest. He frequently visited prisoners in Gaol and he worked with alcoholics He promoted the activities of Alcohol Anonymous. He set up charities to provide aid for the poor and the hungry. Oscar was a respected man. He spoke for the poor, opposed the government, opposed military and opposed rich families who influenced the politicians behind the scene. He was a determined Christian disciple. Romeros aim in life was too help the poor and hungry and the only way he could help them was by making sure the church get a say in politics. He started at a seminary in San Miguel, in 1930. A few months later he was sent to Rome to complete his theological studies. In 1942 he is ordained as a priest. In 1943 he returns to El Salvador having witnessed early years of the Second World War, in Europe. From 1944 he worked as a parish priest but a few months later he was called by the bishop to work as the secretary of the diocese, a post which he held for twenty-three years. During this time most of his pastoral work focused on the cathedral parish. Between 1962 and 1965 Romero was a largely important priest in the diocese. He was in charge of the local seminary and editor of the diocesan newspaper. In 1967 he was appointed as sanctuary, General of the National Bishops Conference, and he moves to San Salvador. Then in 1968 he takes up an additional role for the, Central American Bishops Secretariat. In 1968 the council of Medellin is held in Colombia. In 1970 Romero is made auxiliary assistant bishop in San Salvador. He becomes increasingly aware of the plight of the oppressed and the poor but resists the notion that the church should be too involve d in politics. In 1974 Romero is made bishop of San Salvador. In 1977 he is made Archbishop of San Salvador. It was dangerous to be a Christian in El Salvador. To speak the Gospel message of Gods love for the poor and suffering of the world was to risk persecution. This was a statement the government could not ignore. A person could not claim to be a Christian if he or she ignored the violence against so many in the country or if they ignored the bombings, the illegal detentions, the torture and the callous murders of men, women and children. These murders were seen as a direct attack on the church itself. It was an assault which the Church could not ignore. This is when Romero decided on his course of action. His thinking on religion and politics develops. He sees an increasing need for the church to have a voice in politics and becomes an outspoken critic of injustice and oppression. On the 24th March 1980 Oscar Romero is assassinated. On the 30th March 1980 the, Palm Sunday Massacre, took place. He had the most powerful and influential voice of the Church and he was the spokesperson for the oppressed. Romero believed that the Gospels did not see a division between religion and everyday life. In a world of fear and terror, Romeros preaching of the Gospel message of love and justice was a source of hope for the people. One of the famous things Romero said was, May Christs sacrifice give us the courage to offer our own bodies for justice and peace. His last sermon, on the Sunday before his death, was very significant. In it Romero made a special request to those with belief in God and those of Christian faith. It was a sermon which many believe cost him his life. In the sermon Romero said, Nobody has to fulfil an immoral law. Now it is time that you recover your consciences and that you first obey your conscience rather than an order to sin. We want the Government to understand seriously that reforms are worth nothing if they are stained with so much blood. I beg, I ask, I order you in the name of God: stop the repression. A week after the preaching these words Oscar Romero was assassinated. In the days before the funeral crowds of people flooded into the city. Visitors arrived from all over the world. Not only the Church leaders but also important politicians from many countries were present. Romero had become a respected political as well as religious leader. Nuns and priests were gathered in a very public hunger strike. In protest at the killing of Romero, they were refusing to eat. This showed how great a person he was. There were as many as a hundred thousand people packed in every available space outside the cathedral, waiting for the funeral service. The solemn funeral service began in a dignified manner. During the sermon everyone listened intently to the words of remembrance for Oscar Romero. During his life Romero tried to put such ideals into practice. His religious belief was always a practical matter and his great desire was to see people work together for a better world. Romero shared, with all who would listen a vision of justice in an injustice world. His life and martyrdom are remembered by millions. In a troubled world Romero remains as a sign of hope. Those who killed him may have thought that they would be silencing a powerful voice against injustice in El Salvador. They may have killed the man but the message of justice for all still lives today.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Modernization of Japan Essay Example for Free

The Modernization of Japan Essay According to Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook in Columbia University and East Asian Curriculum Project: â€Å"the arrival of United States naval fleet commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry has ended the seclusion of Japan from the outside world, particularly western. Perry then instructed to open Japan to foreign trade and diplomatic contact†. The Edo bakufu, recognizing United States military superiority, signed a treaty of friendship during a second visit by Perry in 1854. In 1868, the Meji restoration was successful and totally isolated from westerners influence. A new government was installed composed and led by rank and file samurai from the domains of Satsuma and Choshu. The newly restored government pledged to restore a new nation that shall be modernized and independent. As further cited by the Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook in Columbia University, East Asian Curriculum Project: â€Å"it meant finding a new symbol around which Japanese people could rally (the Meiji Emperor), a new sense of investment in the modern society being built, the opportunity to make a â€Å"success† of oneself, and the dismantling of the old feudal order†. Subsequently over the period, in favor of a modern centralized government, the old feudal domains were abolished. The old feudal class distinctions were notably the samurai class. Resistance and contradiction in the newly restored government, as Saigo Takamori led a rebellion in 1878, were repelled. The Meji government proved its imperial power to rebuild its cultural heritage, society and the way of life. The government, as led by the Meji Oligarchs, has paved its governmental system into parliament. A constitution was enacted and the exercises of election that has finally outlined the parliament proceedings like modern states.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Looking At The African Traditional Religion

Looking At The African Traditional Religion To discuss the question that Christianity should not influence African Religion, but that African Religion can also enrich Christianity, it is important to state what the two religions are and the misunderstanding that has locked up the two Religions. It is equally very essential to mention the concepts, which were at one time concrete to African Traditional Religion before the coming of Christianity in Africa. Therefore, in this paper, my major concern is to discuss issues that indeed African religion has contributed to the enrichment of Christianity In this paper, it is also important to discuss what Christianity and African Traditional Religions are all about. Therefore, Christianity is a religion believed to have been founded by Christ. Christ is believed to be the supernatural Son of God and mediator between people and God. He is considered to be the ancestor in Christianity belief. He is believed to have died and rose from the dead, interceding for human beings. Christianity is a religion that acknowledges the existence of the Supreme Being, God the almighty the creator of the unseen and seen things. This supernatural Being is called by different names such as the provider, just as he has been given different names and attributes in African Traditional Religion. Christianity is the religion that has practices and beliefs that are believed to be the teachings are well as the works Jesus Christ. It is believed to have been brought to African by the Europeans. It is a foreign religion in Africa from the western world. When the missionaries were spreading the Christian beliefs and practices, they used also their culture to dominate other people including Africans; who at the time already believed in African Traditional religion. As for African religion, many people say that it is not easy to define. It has made scholars fail to understand and explain it fully. As a result they have ended up defining African Religion using terminologies, which are misleading. They have described African Traditional Religion as magic, animism, primitive religion, ancestor worship and many more wrong descriptions. Nevertheless, African Traditional Religion is believed to be the oldest religion. It is believed that the beliefs and practices of the African tradition religion are indigenous that have been in existence from time immemorial for indigenous black African people. In other words, African Traditional Religion is part of the mental cultural heritage of indigenous Africans and are able source of identity and consciousness, morality and spirituality, in all spheres. It is passed on through traditional education done by elders of the community. Wilsons idea of educating that: Education involves initiating people into various forms of thought and activity in such away that they are helped to become better informed, more understanding and more reasonable. (Wilson 1971:1) However, Wilsons view is that traditional religious education by elders through oral or handing down of culture in Africa attempts to be as its set emphasis on keeping the tradition. The African Traditional Religious view on religion is not an influence from Christianity, but rather enrichment to it. However, African Traditional Religion is very essential in that it is universal, unifies and disunites and diverse in nature. Religion is human experience found in all societies in various forms. Holm (1975:7). States that a religion is vital, universal and that every human being has a form of religion. Her argument is based on the assumption that every person has farther concern in life. Therefore, a religion is not only about Christianity. Hence, it is important for African Traditional Religion to enrich Christianity. Despite that African Traditional Religion unifies, Africa being a multi racial, multi ethnic, multi religious and multi culture and belief, it enriches other religions like Christianity. Nevertheless, African Traditional Religion can play a role effectively as it assists to remove bigotry and fanaticism among Christians; it helps Christians to realize that human beings are equal and that they should respect others their ways of life and beliefs. Such realization comes about by African Tradition Religion objective teachings. In this way it can play the significant role of holding society together in the spirit of Ubuntu- which of a spirit of oneness, the spirit of love one another as yourself in the Christian concept. Actually the Religion is said to have no founder and has no sacred books such as the Bible for the Christians. The beliefs and practices of African Traditional Religion are said to have been handed down from generation to generation by both verbally and as well as by the practical performances as narrated earlier on. African Traditional Religion is based on communitarian kind of lifestyle. That is, living as tribes or clan and as extended families, hence there are so religious because of these many tribes or clans in Africa, but Africans themselves remain in union as they have common God to whom they worship. Despite having many religions, It is generally agreed that there is one African Religion because they have common and important beliefs such as the Supreme Being as already stated above. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, death and life after death. The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. There is no demarcation between them. Everyone is welcome in the society because Africans are born into the religion. They born and live in it wherever theres an African, religion is there too whether in field, at school, at funeral etc. The religion has influence on all affairs of life starting from before birth of a human being through life itself and even after death. It is centered on life and how to protect it against misfortunes such as sickness, infertility, death and many more adversaries that can happen in human life. African Religion embraces Spiritual, political and social aspects of human beings. Its practices and beliefs are based on the faith of the ancestors. This is what makes African Religion a traditional belief. The beliefs and the concepts of beliefs are found in the idea of God, the creators of all things; the concept that has enriched Christianity. The beliefs are expressed in different ways from culture to culture but the same presence of God permeates the lives of Africans. God is believed to be a higher Being Personal with Feelings that he/she can be offended or be appeased. God is thought to be mysterious and he is named according to his manifestations, for this reason God can be referred to as Greatness, Holy, the Provider, and Healer, Protector, Deliverer, and many more attributes. All these titles reflect the same to Christianity, therefore no influence to African religion. It is believed that God can be communicated to through the ancestors those who have died, just like what happens to Christianity through Jesus. This is one of the issues which Christianity have misunderstood African Religion so that they have always wanted to influence African Religion. While at the same time they are the same valuable elements, which are used in Christianity. African Religion and Christianity are in constant misunderstanding though they are compatible. When Christianity was brought to Africa, Europeans thought that Africans did not have knowledge about God. They thought African Religion was all about worshipping of ancestors and that it was a primitive religion just as stated earlier on. I conquer with Richard Gehman when he said that we should not think that the missionaries were preaching the gospel to Africans whose heads were empty or may be to think that Africans are not aware of the existence of God. For example, in African religion the spirit of oneness has been a practical issue that existed long before. This deals with the African concept of the community. In Africa, nouns like cousin, niece, nephew, uncle, and aunt does not exist. In Africa, one may have many fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters. Brothers to their father are also their fathers, and sisters to their mother are their mothers too. That is how the African communit y is set up. Extended families are appreciated. This is what Christianity of the western world should do. Westerners who brought Christianity should embrace the extended families too, and embrace everyone as members of the same family. Oneness has no limit to nuclear family like Westerners who brought Christianity; it extends beyond the ancestral tree to clan and so forth. The Christian religion instead preaches of love your neighbour, which is enrichment from African religion of oneness. Moreover, there is uniformity in African religion. All what they believe in are the same everywhere, unlike Christianity which different in Africa and in the western world. The missionaries dominated African with their western culture to try to influence African culture. They coupled African Religion and culture with Christianity; hence the failure to harmonize the two and what has come out is misunderstanding. Like in the Ngoni tradition ceremony (Ncwala) of the people of Zambia, the culture of giving thanks to God for the harvest of the new crops is a long outstanding issue back dated to the time of our ancestors. This has been enrichment to Christianity, being given a name of Harvest Sunday. Africans in their religion knew that there was a supreme being who deserves appreciation. Hence traditional ceremonies like the Ngonis. The crops are presented before the Paramount Chief for thanksgiving now. And a Chief can be equalled to a Priest in the Christian circles, whom also performs similar duties of that of a chief; though through different mediators, ancestors for the African religion and Jesus Christ for the Christians. Misunderstanding intensify because the westerners came with their own ways of living and thinking together with Christianity as stated earlier on and tried to rob African religion. Despite the misunderstanding that has been exhibited between African Religion and Christianity it is important to mention that the two religions are compatible Though Christians think that African religion is a religion of ancestral worshipping, the African religionist have indicated that it is not about worshipping the ancestors, but rather to honour the ancestors just as Jesus is honoured What Christianity has failed to understand is the reason why African Religion venerates and not worships the ancestors. Actually African Religionists have said that we do not worship ancestors, we remember them and thank them. Veneration is honouring the ancestors and their spirits. This is one of the values, which are similar to Christian denominations like the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican churches do the veneration when commemorating the saints. These are believed to play a similar role as intermediaries and are believed to be closer to God who is the Supreme and Supernatural Spiritual Being. In African religion, life is perceived to be sacred. There is almost a feeling a divine imperative that life must be lived, is to be enjoyed and to be honoured. No wander both Religions believe that people continue to exist even after death and there is need to remember them as Mbiti said that as much as Christianity and African Religion are aware of the existence of God, they would also remain in contact with him through intermediaries. It is believed that the spirit of the living dead of those who have died in fourth to fifth generations ago became ancestors who mediate between God and those who are still living. Mbiti also explains that the natural relationship and the sacred status are included in this ancestral. In African tradition religion there is a very high sense of the sacred. There is a reverence of sacred places and persons, and it enfolds the whole of life. The relationship ties continue to exist. Hence they are venerated in remembrance of them as though they were still alive. Now Christianity holds the some similar belief that death is not the end of the relationships between the living and the dead. That is why there is the remembrance for the departed ones. This is what the west failed to understand why African Religion honours the dead. For example, the ideas of Religions about faith in the Supreme Being, ideas about morality and worship are concrete to both Christianity and African Religion. Unfortunately such concrete issues and many others have been neglected in Christianity whilst African Religion has been up holding them. African religion is actually being urged to enrich Christianity by urging it to reinstate the lost values. As seen in 1 Corinthians 14:36, Paul gives a picture of what an African would ask the Christians that the values of life can not only come from the whites but from Africans too. African Religion has something to offer the west as Peter. K. Sarpong states that; African Traditional religion challenges Christianity to re-appraise it self with regard to the main concepts which once were its pillars, but now are disappearing or becoming irrelevant Sarpong may mean that Christianity has lost very important elements needed for the better relation between human beings and God as well as among people themselves. Like what is happening today, homosexuality is tolerated among Christians who was at a certain time criticised but in African religion it has remained an abomination- a taboo up to today. Lastly, as a person born in Africa and attached to an African tradition, can proudly say that there is nothing that African tradition religion can enrich from Christianity. Christianity instead, enrich from African religion. And I have observed that there is some wrong perceptions about African religion practices that are actually in some form performed in Christianity, and just failed the other religion.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Hitler’s Alliance With The Soviet Union :: European History Essays

Hitler’s Alliance With The Soviet Union When the world awoke August 24, 1939 it appeared that the absolute impossible had just occurred in Europe, National Socialist Germany and Soviet Russia had just agreed on a Non Aggression pact. By that morning the entire political world had changed, it had been thrown roughly on its head and people quickly asked how it could have happened? Over a period of three years the German chancellor, Adolph Hitler had repeatedly pushed the major powers to the limit with his territorial demands in the Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and now in the Polish corridor. Hitler had succeeded in each gamble and grown bolder each time as he noticed the vacillating nature of the supposed major powers that stood in the way of his completing his long held foreign policy program. This program, first coherently laid down in his 1924 book Mein Kampf, called for the re-armament of Germany and the acquisition of allies like Italy and Britain, the neutralization or destruction of his hated enemy France, and finally with Germany’s rear protected the way would be clear for the great fight against Judeo-Bolshevism in the Soviet Union, and the gaining of Lebensraum for the superior Aryan German race. Since coming to power in 1933, Hitler had completed the first phase of his program save for the making of a British alliance or at least their promise of neutrality in any upcoming European war of revision. Realizing that the British would need some coercing to accept his program, and that if war was to come with the west his eastern border must be secured, Hitler relied on his great ability to play the game of power politics and shocked the world by allying with his sworn enemy. Hitler sought the Non-Aggression pact and covert military alliance with the Soviet Union because it was a temporary means to an all encompassing end. Hitler would use the hated Soviets to secure his eastern flank while he destroyed France with or without the help of Britain, only to return the favor by attacking them when Germany was ready. It was a move consistent with the power politics and foreign policy program he had been pursuing since 1933, his attempts to force Britain into a military alliance or at least a proclamation of neutrality in any continental war, and the subjugation of France as a prerequisite to obtaining Lebensraum in the East. The Non-Aggression pact of August 1939, was the pre war culmination of policies designed by Hitler to further his foreign policy program of making

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Whites v. Slaves :: American America History

Whites v. Slaves Throughout the nineteenth century, the relationship between Africans and White settlers had never been exactly pleasant, most Africans were slaves who were usually treated badly and therefore never did respect their white owners. However, over time, these slaves began to revolutionize their culture, language, and points of view based on their environment. Many changes were occurring in this period of time, thus creating countless opportunities for the African Americans to fabricate their new culture. A catalyst to this development of the new society is the noted differences the Africans and whites possess. Many of the Africans despised the whites, so they tired to stay as far away from them as possible, this rift in the peoples created the main African culture, purely based on the opposite ideas that the whites held. On the other hand, many times the White people would help out the Africans, and a bond would form between the slaves and their master. Although the groups tried to remain different in this situation, the ideas between the two mingled together and they influenced each other. As horrific as slavery may have seemed at the time, I think it may have been a "positive good", simply due to the actuality that at this time, White people were exceedingly ignorant, and without slavery, they possibly would not have a way of dealing with interactions with the slaves. As we look to post-Civil wartime, up to the time of MLK, we see that ignorance was an infestation throughout all of us, without the slavery, Africans were treated with the utmost disrespect. Common rights were stripped from them, and at times they were reduced to being treated like animals. During the period in question, the two races grew into coexisting without any major conflict or altercation. Comparatively to the north, the slave southern states did not seem to treat its workers any worse. It was said that at the time, the slaves were achieving better shelter, food and clothing. The migrant workers in the north at many times worked similar 10-14 hour shifts, and at many times, the slaved did not work that many hours, depending on what type of system they were working. Plus the workers up north did not have much food to eat, or clothes to wear, something the slaves did enjoy. Whites v. Slaves :: American America History Whites v. Slaves Throughout the nineteenth century, the relationship between Africans and White settlers had never been exactly pleasant, most Africans were slaves who were usually treated badly and therefore never did respect their white owners. However, over time, these slaves began to revolutionize their culture, language, and points of view based on their environment. Many changes were occurring in this period of time, thus creating countless opportunities for the African Americans to fabricate their new culture. A catalyst to this development of the new society is the noted differences the Africans and whites possess. Many of the Africans despised the whites, so they tired to stay as far away from them as possible, this rift in the peoples created the main African culture, purely based on the opposite ideas that the whites held. On the other hand, many times the White people would help out the Africans, and a bond would form between the slaves and their master. Although the groups tried to remain different in this situation, the ideas between the two mingled together and they influenced each other. As horrific as slavery may have seemed at the time, I think it may have been a "positive good", simply due to the actuality that at this time, White people were exceedingly ignorant, and without slavery, they possibly would not have a way of dealing with interactions with the slaves. As we look to post-Civil wartime, up to the time of MLK, we see that ignorance was an infestation throughout all of us, without the slavery, Africans were treated with the utmost disrespect. Common rights were stripped from them, and at times they were reduced to being treated like animals. During the period in question, the two races grew into coexisting without any major conflict or altercation. Comparatively to the north, the slave southern states did not seem to treat its workers any worse. It was said that at the time, the slaves were achieving better shelter, food and clothing. The migrant workers in the north at many times worked similar 10-14 hour shifts, and at many times, the slaved did not work that many hours, depending on what type of system they were working. Plus the workers up north did not have much food to eat, or clothes to wear, something the slaves did enjoy.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Macbeth Character Analysis Essay

In this essay I will write about the character of Macbeth and what my first impressions are of him, such as his bravery, strength, determination and courage. I will also write about how he is introduced, his reaction to the encounter with the weird sisters, his attitude towards Banquo, Duncan and Malcolm. Also, his relationship with his wife, Lady Macbeth. My very first impression of Macbeth was that he was was brave as the captain said, â€Å"For brave Macbeth – well he deserves that name†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . Also, the captain implied that he is very strong and a great fighter, â€Å"†¦ With his brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution, like valour’s minion carved out his passage, till he faced the slave†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . This means that he stands with his sword covered in blood which shows he has killed a lot of people and valour’s minion means bravery’s favourite. The captain also says how merciless Macbeth is as he kills the traitor Macdonwald, â€Å"†¦which never shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, till he unseamed him from the nave to the chops, and fixed his head upon our battlements†. This quote shows how merciless Macbeth is as it states that he ‘carved’ his way through the army, and how he killed Macdonwald even after bring tired and bruised without even speaking to him. He even paraded his head on the battlefield to show everybody what he had done. Our first impressions of Macbeth are that he is brave, merciless and a great fighter. The three witches soon appeared and told their predictions; â€Å"All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Glamis!† â€Å"All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!† â€Å"All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, that shalt be King hereafter!†. After Macbeth heard the wierd sisters he was too shocked to speak as Banquo said, â€Å"Good sir, why do you start, and seem to fear things that do sound so fair†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He finally answered back by asking them to tell more and in more detail. He started to question the three witches and himself as he was confused; â€Å"†¦I know I am Thane of Glamis, but how of Cawdor? The thane of Cawdor lives†¦Ã¢â‚¬  . He was trying to figure out what this all meant and how these creatures got this information. He again tried to question them but the suddenly vanished into thin air, â€Å"The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, and these are of them.†. He asked Banquo if this was real or if they had eaten some kind of hallucinogens or drugs, â€Å"Were such things here as we do speak about? Or have we eaten on the insane root†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He then started thinking about being Thane of Cawdor and whether or not this could be true. The two messengers came, nearly straight after the predictions by the three witches, and told Macbeth that he was given the title Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth was in shock and Banquo said that evil was at work, Macbeth asked the messengers why he was the new Thane even though the old Thane still lived. He thanked the messengers and said to himself that more was to come as this is shown in the quote, â€Å"Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor. The greatest is behind.†. This means that the greatest prize is still to come and this is referring to him being King. His first thoughts of the three witches after they appeared and told their predictions were that they were some kind of supernatural beings and so Macbeth tried to find out what they meant, where they received this information and why they were telling him this. He was first thinking this was some kind of hoax but after the messengers came and said that the King had named him the Thane of Cawdor, he began to consider what it will mean if the third prediction is to come true. Banquo is Macbeth’s best friend and he trusts him with his life and vice versa. He respects Banquo and he uses his advice most of the time. They are partners in war and in friendship and do almost everything together. He likes Banquo but he sometimes has different thoughts than him as this quote states, â€Å"†¦But ’tis strange: And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, the instruments of darkness tell us truths†¦in deepest consequences.† This quote means that the recent occurrences are unnatural and the forces of evil encourage them to do things, which are misleading, and there could be some consequences later. Duncan is the King of Scotland and Macbeth had given him the most respect he has ever given anyone. Macbeth was loyal to the King and fought for him and the country of Scotland. Macbeth thinks that Duncan is a good King and uses his power to good strength and also the fact that he has a good judgement, this quote shows this, â€Å"Strong both against the deed; then†¦besides Duncan hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been so clear in his great office†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This means that Macbeth thinks King Duncan is a good king who is not corrupt. Macbeth does not like Malcolm even though he is related to him, Malcolm is the heir to the throne and that is a bit of a pain in the neck. Macbeth wants to be king but cannot as Malcolm is the heir so, as you would imagine he is an obstacle in Macbeth’s ambition and target, this quote shows this. â€Å"The Prince of Cumberland-that is a step†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Lady Macbeth is Macbeth’s wife and Macbeth loves her very much and so he sends her a letter telling her that he has become the Thane of Cawdor, â€Å"They met me in a day of success†¦they have more in them than mortal knowledge†¦came missives from the King, who hailed me ‘Thane of Cawdor’†¦ â€Å" Lady Macbeth is the kind of person that gets what she wants and I don’t think that Macbeth likes this that much. She persuades him to murder Duncan nearly straight after she recieves his letter. Macbeth likes Lady Macbeth but he doesn’t like the way she gets her way but he still goes with the flow, â€Å"Was the hope drunk wherein you dressed yourself†¦and live a coward in thine own esteem†¦each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show†¦ â€Å" Here, Lady Macbeth uses reverse psychology by accusing him of cowardice and a lack of love or her. Overall the first impressions we get of Macbeth are that he is brave and a good fighter and that he is loyal to his country and the King. His first impressions of the three witches were the same as anybody else, surprise and that the witches are some strange people or that they are seeing things. He likes Banquo and respects him and he is very loyal to Duncan who is like a father figure to him. He doesn’t like Malcolm that much as he is an obstacle but he is still related to him. His relationship with Lady Macbeth is very good but you get the impression that she is very much in control of their relationship.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Frankenstein Movie Version vs. Mary Shelley’s Novel Essay

In 1957 British Production Company Hammer Films launched their own series of adaptations of Frankenstein with the first film entitled â€Å"The Curse of Frankenstein†. The Frankenstein’s myth was revived once again. This time it was more different from the Universal Studios own version. The prominent element in the Universal Series was the monster but Hammer chose the person of Victor Frankenstein as focal point and subject of the story. The Curse of Frankenstein is set around 1880. Baron Victor Frankenstein and his new teacher Paul Krempe became close companions. They started their experiments and their first success was the reanimation of a puppy. After several years they want to experiment it on humans. They stole the body of a hanged highwayman from the gallows. Victor bought body parts like eyes, hands and several other parts, which they stitch together. Finally, the only thing needed to complete his creation is a brain, â€Å"the mind of a genius†. Victor killed his old mentor Professor Bernstein to place its brain in his creation. Victor Frankenstein was entirely different from the character in Shelley’s novel. He was not as bad as the film portrays. He doesn’t have to kill anyone to achieve his goal. The only close similarity to the original story is the monster with its ugly and horrible appearance. The monster also from the moment it wakes was found to be very aggressive and evil. It kills a blind man and a young girl unlike in the original where it is not even capable to express feelings and emotions. The film was based on the original story of Frankenstein novel but a lot of twists and modifications have been already done to the original theme. Works Cited Rohrmoser, Andreas. The Curse of Frankenstein (1957) The Monstrous Baron: Hammer Film’s Frankenstein Series. 2006. 24 September 2008.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Criminology Essay

This essay is going to explain a crime definition, criminology development and two different crime theories: biological and psychological. Crimes have been an inseparable companion of humanity. It occures everywhere, from upper to lower class, but as long as there are people, there will always be crime. And due to this fact, along with the flow of time, the need of studying crime emerged. So what is crime? According to Oxford Dictionaries: an action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law. However the law is not the same in every country, thus a second definition, in my words, would be more accurate: socially constructed concept that changes over time and place and relates to many behaviours that go against the morals of society and actions that cause harm. Sources to look at that promote me theory would be the Sage Dictionary of Criminology and Introductory Criminology textbooks. Around the1870s the classical theory, was replaced with new one – the biological approach. This approach stated that an individual might be driven to commite a crime by abnormalities he/she had been born with. Abnormalities such as involving body function/health and facial details could determine that an individual is a criminal or not. The idea itself was meant to isolate those qualified as â€Å"bad people† from the society beforehand. This particular approach excluded those whom were born different and made rational reasoning and free will unavailable to them- one was simply born a criminal or not. (Akers 2000: p. 42) Cesare Lombroso is most known for one of the biggest contributions to a biological approach. In 1876 he published The Criminal Man where he described his conclusions after comparing body features of Italian prisoners and Italian soldiers. Lombroso called those matching the description of a criminal â€Å"atavisms† as they degenerated to a lower level. He has the physical makeup, mental capabilities, and instincts of primitive man. New born child can be indentified with stigmata (details stated by Lombroso) which are for example: an unsymmetry of the face or head, large monkey-like ears, large lips, receding chin, twisted nose, excessive cheek bones, long arms, excessive skin wrinkles and extra fingers or toes. Female criminals are also born criminals however in their case, they have only three abnormalities available for determining them to be criminal. (Akers 2000: p. 42-43; Maguire, Morgan & Reiner 2002: p. 25) This approach did not last long. It’s met harsh criticism in 1913 when Charles Goring, an English medical officer published The English Convict. He hired well educated people in order to form a team and run certain observations based on Lombroso statements. They compared people from various layers of society with various backgrounds – from prisoners, through army and hospitals, all the way up to university students and professors. The result of his research was that ultimatley, Lombroso was wrong. Goring arrived at the assumption that criminals were characterized by the defects in intelligence. His work met some criticism as well but from that point on people started slowly moving away from born-criminal theory. (Akers 2000: 43-44: Maguire, Morgan & Reiner 2002: p. 147) A second approach would be a psychological one. Let’s split it on two theories, psychoanalytic theory and personality theory. Starting off with psychoanalytic it can be said that it does not have much in common with the biological approach. Both seek for the causes of crime within the makeup of an individual. However in this case we focus rather on mind and processes going inside a subject’s head. Classical Freudians explain that someone might’ve suffered emotional disturbances or experienced abnormalities in early childhood. Those events, if not overcomed properly, could lead to insufficient development of an individual’s id, ego and superego causing imbalance. Id is an unconscious element, it’s irrational and antisocial therefore must be controlled. This can be done by properly maintaining properly ego and superego which develop around the age of three. Freudians state that a child wants to be in possession of the parent of the opposite sex and sees the other as a rival. Feelings can lead to the development of either an Oedipus or an Electra complex. The basic idea of this theory is that delinquent or criminal behaviour is caused by psychic conflict between id, ego and superego due to poor early relationship with either mother or father. It relies heavily on irrational and unconscious motivations as basic forces behind crime. Everything has it’s pluses and minuses, this theory is no different. Actions of an individual, let’s say a murder, can be influenced by something hidden deep in his unconscious mind making it practically impossible to test and check it’s reliability. (Akers 2000: p. 59-61) Personality studies have long tradition in psychology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1990) came up with his own theory regarding personality. It bases on interaction of biological, social and individual factors. He asks: Why don’t more people go out and engage in criminal behaviour? Rewards are instant, punishment if happens is temporally distant from the deed and chances of being punished in reality are quite slim. However our conscious plays a big role here, society in general pairs up an act with consequences – we have a fear of being punished. Eysenck defined three dimensions of personality during his research: extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), psychoticism (P). High ‘E’ level is meant for people who are under-aroused and thus will look for stimulation while high ‘N’ individuals are considered irritable and anxious. The best set up would be with low ‘E’ and low ‘N’ while high ‘E’ and high ‘N’ would be the worst. The ‘P’ dimension was not well described, it could refer more to psycopathy rather than psychotism. This scale is concerned with aspects of behaviour such as preference for solitude or lack of a feeling for others. (http://www. docstoc. com/docs/2216719/Eysenck? s-Theory-of-Personality–Crime ; Maguire, Morgan & Reiner 2002: p. 152-154) In personality theory the problem lies not in unconscious motivation, but the content of the person’s personality. It states that some people have specifically criminal focused personalities: impulsiveness, aggressiveness, rebelliousness, hostility and so on. These apply to self-centered individuals who have not been properly socialized into prosocial attitudes and values, they have no sense of right and wrong, lack of empathy. (Akers 2000: p. 62) Those two approaches are out of many. Cannot really say that one’s right and second’s wrong. Each has scientific points that either support or are against it. The newer biological explanations of crime have found greater acceptance in criminology, but they happened to be criticized for their dependence on research and serious methodology problems – resulted in generally weak support. Psychoanalytic and personality theories also concentrate on the causes of crime arising from within the individual, but the causes are not seen as inherited or biologically predetermined. Personality theories are more testable than psychoanalytic theories, but research has produced mixed results.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Guidelines for Writing the Three Major Parts

Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature Review (Introduction, Literature, and Discussion) follow. Directions Do not begin typing until you see the level heading – An Overview and Purpose in your template. The Guidelines are organized by LECTURES and INSTRUCTIONS. Lectures and related reading material are included to assist in developing each part of the Review. Where there is to be writing, there are specific Instructions as what is to be included under each heading. Instructions appear in a box. Each instruction is numbered. Respond to ALL NUMBERED INSTRUCTIONS.Introduction to the Literature Insert Your Brief Topic before the Colon: An Overview and Purpose Lecture Note: This section is revised with each new submission of a draft. The introductory section should describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme or research question or problem) that is being reviewed. Aim for an â€Å"eye catching opening sentence†. Sometimes this is a drama tic expression of a number to catch the reader’s attention such as the prevalence of a disease, crime rate, school drop out rate, or sales volume. Be sure the topic is focused on the literature that will be reported.Briefly define the key concepts. Introduce these immediately. The topic should be sufficiently focused to permit an in-depth, substantial investigation, relevant to an area of advanced study/global leadership that guides a range of inquiry, results in an extensive search of scholarly literature, and generation of questions for further inquiry. The purpose of a literature review is presented in the introduction. Bourner (1996) reports the following Purposes – of a literature review – (reasons for a review of the literature) before embarking on a research project.These reasons include: †¢ to identify gaps in the literature †¢ to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistake s as others) †¢ to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) †¢ to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) †¢ to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area †¢ to identify seminal works in your area to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work †¢ to identify opposing views †¢ to put your work into perspective †¢ to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area †¢ to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project †¢ to identify methods that could be relevant to your project Bourner, T. (1996). The research process: Four steps to success in T. Greenfield (Ed. ), Research methods: Guidance for postgraduates (pp. 7-11). London: Arnold. Retrieved 8-13-02 from Royal Melbourne Institu te of Technology RMIT University http://www. ib. rmit. edu. au/tutorials/literature/litrev. html As you attempt to define concepts (variables) and their relationships to other variables, if applicable, identify causal (independent) variables and effects (dependent variables). You may also identify other variables that can be contextual, intervening, or mediating (see Creswell, pp. 94-95 or other texts). After you introduce the topic area properly (instructions follow), you will develop a succinct one-sentence purpose of the review. Three examples of a concluding purpose statement in the overview are:Example 1: The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on web-based instruction as an instructional method in distance education, with an emphasis on effectiveness studies that focus on instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, student perceptions of this method of course delivery, and to identify areas of future s cholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is â€Å"instructional method of web-based instruction† and the effects (dependent variable) are instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, and student perceptions.Example 2: The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is to (a) examine historical and current literature to evaluate whether gender workplace bias exists; (b) explore the impact such a bias would have on women in the workplace, specifically women moving up the corporate ladder; and, (c) identify any theoretical or empirical gaps in the literature for the purpose of suggesting future areas of scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is â€Å"gender bias against women in the workplace† and the effect (dependent variable) is mobility up the corporate ladder.Example 3 (Review carefully): The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical lit erature is explore the influence of organizational leadership and other factors on organizational performance, in for-profit and not-for profit service organizations, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variables (independent) are â€Å"organizational leadership† and â€Å"other factors†, contextual (intervening or mediating) variables are the type of organization (product versus service) and profit/non-profit, and the effect (dependent variable) is organizational performance.Please note in developing your purpose statement, that the purpose statement begins with The purpose of †¦. and concludes with a statement related to identifying future areas of scholarly inquiry. 9 Instructions: Writing An Overview and Purpose (Follow precisely) *Review Blackboard Forum 5. Use your information and faculty comments for strengthening, as a guide to develop your Overview and Purpose (see items #1-9 below). *Draft 1 is due Week 3. Revie w Forum 6. You will get a great start if you develop this well. 1. Using the template: a. Develop a preliminary title for the Review and include on the title page.The title should include the main concepts and themes (and/or key theories) for this review. Remember this is a critical analysis of the literature NOT a research study!!!! In no area of this paper, should you refer to this Review of Literature as a research study!!!!!! b. For the Introduction to the Literature, insert a brief subtitle preceding the colon for the level heading: ___: Overview and Purpose. 2. Under the Overview and Purpose, introduce the paper with an â€Å"eye catching† opening sentence for the first paragraph. 3. After the â€Å"eye catching† opening sentence, briefly – describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme).Get to the point – don’t let the reader guess what the review is about –a few sentences. 4. Next include brief definitions of each of the ma jor concepts and cite references for these definitions in appropriate APA format. BE BRIEF – this is not the literature but an introduction to it! Anything you present in the introduction is developed in depth in the Review of the Literature. 5. Next, very briefly, attempt to identify how the literature explains these variables and their relationships to other variables. Include as many as possible variables because this will help in constructing a literature map.The map will show relationships between the variables as you describe here. – Begin with the following: The causal variables (independent are) †¦ The effects (dependent/outcome variables are†¦ Contextual (intervening or mediating) variables that further impact the dependent or outcome variables are †¦. 6. Discuss how the topic area was identified and your reasons (point of view) for selecting the topic area to conduct your critical analysis of the literature. Review the Guidelines: How to Start – Select a Topic and Overview and Purpose, including purposes identified by Bourner (1996).Begin with the following: The topic area of ____ was selected because___. 7. Explain what you want to know about the topic. Review Hart, 1999, p. 14 (Questions the Review Can Answer). Begin with the following: Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are:†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8. Answer the following: Is the topic about the problems in a discipline or field of study, the processes in a discipline or field of study, or the practices in a discipline or field of study? Processes can refer to various epistemologic processes to develop knowledge (also See Hart, 1999, p. 4). Introduce this clearly so the reader knows what you are speaking about. Begin with the following: The problem area of †¦ is about†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9. Conclude the Overview and Purpose with a clearly formulated statement of purpose of the literature review. Use the examples in the guidelines , as a guide to develop this. Make this clear (see examples in the previous lecture note). Begin with the following and include the ending The purpose of this †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. , and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. Organization of the Review, Scope, and Library Research PlanOrganization of the Review Lecture Collect appropriate articles, read critically, identify concepts, theories, and themes, and think about the best way to present your topic. Write these concepts, theories, and themes down (see your Blackboard forum 5 submission and instructor response. Develop a Literature Map. This is a Content Map (Concept Map or Mind Map): All students will have a literature map that will guide the organization of the review and literature search. Build (draw) a visual picture of the concepts and their relationships, which results in a literature map.These evolve from your topic, key concepts, ideas, theme, and/or purpose. Donâ₠¬â„¢t introduce new information or concepts. It should first be introduced in the overview. The literature map is presented in-depth here. There are many methods to organize the review, which often change as you learn more about the topic. Concept Mapping – Representing information in diagram form where key words are linked by lines. These lines are then labeled to express the relationship between the terms. The resulting ‘map' shows links between key ideas and can then be read through to clarify relationships between key terms. . Definition and Purpose of a Literature Map. This map is a visual/graphic representation of concepts, ideas, and themes that serve to guide thinking. In this case, the purpose is to guide the search and organizational presentation of your review. This map serves to: i. Develop ideas for your review ii. Show relationships and interrelationships between the concepts, theories, and themes – and if so, what type of relationships iii. Assist in organizing old knowledge and integrating it with new knowledge iv. Guide your literature search plan/strategy v.Identify subtitles (subheadings) to organize your literature review so that you can communicate your ideas systematically. vi. A literature/content map is a creative, intuitive, and artistic endeavor to see how things fit – to generate alternatives. It is also analytical and critical, based on what you are finding in the literature. REVIEW THESE LINKS A simplified explanation of understanding of a Content map is described in the following URL – web link – http://users. edte. utwente. nl/lanzing/cm_home. htm b. Various types of Graphic or Visual Organizers (review this online.Click each box) (you need to have the syllabus downloaded and Internet connection on) |Chain of Events |Clustering |Compare/Contrast | |Continuum |Cycle |Family Tree | |Fishbone |Interaction Outline |Problem/Solution | |Spider |Storyboard |Venn Diagram | Source: http://www. sdco e. k12. ca. us/score/actbank/sorganiz. htm Other Web sites: Graphic or Visual Organizers Graphic or Visual Organizers: A good site review this online by clicking link. ttp://edservices. aea7. k12. ia. us/edtech/classroom/workshops/organizers. html http://www. cast. org/ncac/index. cfm? i=3015 http://www. veale. com. au/phd/files/Lit_Map. pdf Some diagrams of content maps are depicted in the following URL web link http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/research/epp2/epp2. htm#Table1 Free Mind Mapping Software (Smart Draw) http://www. smartdraw. com/specials/mindmapping. asp? id=13054 Readings on Mapping Ideas: See Hart, 1999, pp. 142-162 Blackboard’s Assignments Toolbar: See example of literature maps in Assignments – Weeks 1-8 Literature Review (Critical Analysis) 50%.Within this folder is information on PowerPoint Presentation and Student Examples. Most of the student examples include literature maps for RES 702 (RES600) students. Organizing the review of the literature by themes, theories, or major concepts and related concepts provides a â€Å"frame for the central topic† to organize. In this case, you may proceed inductively or deductively. http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/kb/dedind. htm Exercise in Deductive/Inductive thinking: http://www2. sjsu. edu/depts/itl/graphics/induc/ind-ded. html#3bFor example, a deductive approach might start with the broader view or concept(s) then move to the specific topic area. Example FOLLOWS: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature about distance learning. The map shows a deductive pattern of the major themes, using an â€Å"interaction line style† type of graphic organizer. Beginning with the broadest concept of distance education, web-based instruction interacts with student characteristics, which leads to evaluation of effectiveness of web-based instruction in distance education. . . Other concepts and their relationships to gui de the review are . . †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Other Organizational Methodologies for Reviews: While RES 702 students are asked to develop literature maps that serve to organize the review, with more scholarly experience and depending upon the topic, you could also present the Review using an â€Å"opposing view† or â€Å"methodological approach†. This is not expected now. c. The literature map generates an outline for the Review of the Literature Review â€Å"Why do an Outline, and Basic Outlining skills: http://www. und. du/instruct/wstevens/PROPOSALCLASS/PATRAS. html http://www. mnstate. edu/wasson/ed603/ed603lesson5. htm An outline provides a blueprint, skeleton, or a roadmap for the final written review. An outline is an organizational process that is a logical description of the important components of the literature review. It provides a visual and conceptual design for writing. 1. Identify the main points in the order they should be presented. 2. Differentiate each mai n heading into logical subheadings. 3. Use further subdivisions if necessary.IT IS STRONGLY SUGGESTED THAT YOU INCLUDE A SECTION ON MEASUREMENT OF YOUR MAJOR VARIABLES. REPORT SOME OF THE MAJOR METHODS, TOOLS, OR INSTRUMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN USED IN PRIOR STUDIES TO MEASURE THE KEY CONCEPTS IN YOUR OUTLINE. Notice in the outline that follows, a sub-level heading is measurement of leadership and organizational performance. In the Review of the Literature section, you would then describe the tools whether qualitative or quantitative, and reliability, validity (quantitative tools), and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. Run a Proquest or Google search such as: â€Å"measurement leadership†.This saves you time in the QP and literature in the †dissertation† where you need to know how your variables have been studied and measured. It is best to have MORE detail in these themes. You can always change later. Example of an Outline: (Let us say that the following concepts are present in the literature map which could be Chain of Events, Clustering, or Interaction Outline. This is an example of an outline (quite detailed). It includes the major concepts that can be used for the literature search, and the outline is placed in the 2nd part of this Review (Review of the Literature) to organize how to present the literature.Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders; Leadership, Power and Influence; Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice Cultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational Climate Individual Performance Team Performance Supplier/Vendor Perspectives Customer Satisfaction Financial Performance Effectiveness Indicators Performance Driven Organizations Competency ModelingManaging Performance 360 Degree Feedback Collaborative Change Organizational Performance Measurement: Output (Activities) and Outcome (Results) Measures Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Effectiveness 7 Instructions for Writing the Organization of the Review Do not present literature that you reviewed here. Just respond to questions 1-7. . After you design the literature map, begin with the statement: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature in this review about ___. 1. Next, describe the specific type of organizer that you used to design your map (for example, cluster, chain of events, cycle, etc). To do this, you need to review this syllabus on line, and click the diff erent URL links of examples of visual or graphic organizers (review preceding lecture which provides several types). 2. Identify the specific the concepts, theories, and themes that are in your literature map. 3.Next, briefly, describe the relationships between these concepts, theories and themes (such as what leads to what? Which are the causal, outcome and/or intervening variables? Are the concepts organized inductively or deductively? This all refers to the concepts, theories, and themes in your literature map. 4. Next explain that in addition to guiding the literature search, the literature map serves to identify themes, theories, and concepts that will organize the Literature Review. Present these theories, concepts, and themes in outline form, differentiating each main heading into logical subheadings. (Keep it simple). . Due for draft 1, go to the next major section (Review of the Literature) – insert these themes/concepts as level headings/sublevel headings in outline form. They serve to organize the Review of the Literature. Use appropriate APA (see p. 113 of APA) level headings. An example using APA level headings, is shown in the next major section of these guidelines. The concepts and themes for the example, uses the outline of themes previously discussed (leadership and organizational performance). 6. Insert the Figure 1, Literature Map at the end of this discussion of the Organization of the Review (before Scope and Context). . Make sure that you develop your literature map in a software application that can be copied and pasted into your Microsoft word document containing your paper. b. Make sure the map is an appropriate size and fits within the required paper margins. c. The Figure and #, and Title (Literature Map) belong at the bottom, centered: Figure 1 Literature Map Your goal is to have the map well-developed in draft 1 and finalized in (draft 2). It is expected that this map will change as you â€Å"tighten† and â€Å"organ ize your literature review in the next section† as well as well as in your qualifying paper.Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature map evolves). Scope and Context Lecture This section lets the reader know what is and is not included in your literature review (scope). The topic is described in such a way that an appropriate context for the review of the literature is established, in a meaningful, logical way. The key terms here are included/excluded. You can restate the theories, concepts and constructs that you will include and obvious theories, concepts and constructs you won’t include (Look at your problem and topic area).Identify what might be included in the search in terms of types of organizations (public/private; for-profit, not for profit; service/product; types of businesses, types of educational institutions); populations such as young versus old; gender; cultural groups; countries; or type of occupation. The major types of s cholarly literature to review are: empirical studies, review articles (critical analysis), theoretical articles/books, methodological articles, and case studies.These types of literature may be in the form of a book, hard copy journal articles, and electronic journal articles. The following are different types and forms of literature: Periodical Abstract in a primary source, Abstract in a secondary source, Periodical (hard copy), Periodical (electronic), Non-periodical (Book), Non-periodical (chapter in a book), Proceeding of meetings or symposia, Doctoral Dissertations (including abstracts), Unpublished work, Audio-Visuals, Newspaper, Government documents, and Electronic Media. Instructions for Writing the Scope and Context 1. As you write this, discuss what is and is not included. Regarding the topic or problem area, discuss what is and is not included in terms of concepts/theories, applications to different populations and settings. 1. Identify the forms (not types) of publicatio ns that are included. You don’t need to name specific articles, but identify the forms of literature to be included. 2. Identify the discipline(s) you are focusing in (e. g. , education, health, business, criminal justice, accounting, sociology)?Included specialized areas within these disciplines, such as: gender theories in sociology, accounting ethics, special education for specified populations, urban violence, etc. 3. Identify the scope in terms of the years (period of time) that your literature review covers and exclusions. 5. Discuss whether you are limiting your review to U. S. literature, and/or Global literature. For global literature, identify the â€Å"countries†. If seminal books are emphasized, include the titles. Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature expands).Library Research Plan and Strategy Lecture THIS IS THE PLAN, NOT THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE!! The review is presented in the second major section (Review of the Literature) Searching the Literature: A good review of the literature is dependent upon knowledge of the use of indexes and abstracts, the ability to conduct exhaustive bibliographic searches, and ability to organize the collected data meaningfully. Information literacy skills assist with information seeking and retrieval methods and scholarly communication. Recognize scholarly and peer reviewed journals (See Week 1 Lecture)The e-Learning tutorials about Lynn Library can assist research students with the development of literature reviews using electronic databases, abstracts, bibliographic software, Internet searching, Library catalogue searching, subject resources, off-campus searching, and research and writing skills. You need to complete the tutorials. Library Research Plan/Strategy: In reporting your library plan/strategy, identify concepts, themes (key words) or descriptors and search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Be consistent with the Literature map conce pts and themes.Focus your search on primary scholarly works including: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry. Recognize the differences between these types of scholarly inquiry. Review dissertation abstracts. Did you do a Lynn Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn)? Did you search selected journals? Did you limit the search to peer-review journals? Did you limit the search to certain years? If you are having difficulty in your library search, you may make an appointment with the Reference Librarian who may assist in building effective search strategies.When visiting the Library, you should come prepared with your search words. Requesting Materials: It is suggested that you read the abstracts before requesting the materials from the Librarian, because certain abstracts may provide enough information to help you make a decision on the material’s relevance. Expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your lit erature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature, that is of value and relevant.While many published review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 â€Å"relevant†, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from â€Å"consulting firms† or firms that are â€Å"promoting† their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. Types and Forms of Literature: Minimum Requirements i. The preference is that you review a variety of types and forms of literature so that you many learn to: ii.Search for and evaluate different types and forms information iii. Integrate a variety of types information in the text of your paper iv. Recognize classic (seminal) works as well as current literature Give yourself time to read the material; do not make a library request for everything at once. Readings: Search Strategy worksheet: http://library. humboldt. edu/infoservices/sstrawrksht. htm http://www. noodletools. com/debbie/literacies/information/5locate/adviceengine. html http://www. lynn. du/clientuploads/Library/Graduatestudentsmanual. doc 11 Instructions for Writing the Library Research Plan and Strategy In a Review, a discussion of the plan or strategy you used to develop your literature search is presented. Don’t discuss what you â€Å"will† do, but rather â€Å"what you did†. 1. Identify the descriptors (concepts, themes, theories, phrases/key words) used to search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Include â€Å"themes† or groups of words used in the search plan. Add the terms â€Å"theory† or â€Å"research† to your themes when you are searching.You should uses many â€Å"themes† to limit the search. Example of a theme for a library search: â€Å"leadership organiza tional performance research†. Try to include several themes. 2. Report databases used in your library search. 3. Indicate which of the following types of primary scholarly works were reviewed: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry (aim to obtain all of these)? 4. Were secondary citations of references used in your paper? Explain Why? Review APA p. 247 to understand a secondary citation of a source. Remember that these need to be limited.In your dissertation, you need to mostly use primary sources of literature. Remember that if you report literature from secondary sources in your paper use (as cited in __). 5. Explain if you reviewed dissertation abstracts (yes/no). If so, on what topics, which abstracts? You should use these. 6. Explain if you did a Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn or where? ) Yes/ or no 7. Provide the titles of the key journals reviewed. (Put these titles in Italics). 8. Indicated whether or not you limited the sear ch to peer-reviewed journals? . Indicate if you limited the search to certain years? If so, which years? 10. Refer the reader to the example of a library Search Print-out that you will place in Appendix A. 11. Report any problems encountered in your library search and how these problems were managed. Refine this part with each new draft. Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis Lecture In this last part of the introduction to the literature review, you explain the importance and significance of the Review that will follow.As you read more, you will find more rationale as to why this review is important. Provide a transition sentence from this Introduction to the Review of the Literature. Then end with a statement that explains how the Review will conclude in the Discussion section. Example of concluding statement: As an emerging method of instructional delivery in higher education, and one that continually evolves with the growth in technology, it is important to understand its impact on learning, retention, instruction, and students.This critical analysis of the literature concludes with a summary and interpretation of theoretical, empirical, and methodological literature, conclusions, and recommendations for future scholarly inquiry into web-based instruction in distance education. 4 Instructions for Writing the Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis 1. Discuss if the topic is of limited interest, regional, national, or perhaps of global interest? Explain why? You can include personal interest based on experience and potential applications. 2.Describe why it is worth studying (or examining)? 3. Indicate that the presentation of the Review of the Literature follows 4. Develop a concluding statement (see example above, in lecture) to the effect that a synopsis and interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are presented at the end of the review in the discussion section. Refine this part with each new draf t. Review of the Literature About ___ (add your topic) Lecture This is the second major part of this critical analysis. This has a long lecture. Now is the time to write â€Å"your in-depth Literature Review†.You laid the foundations for this section in the Introduction to the Review, to organize your review according to those themes. Present the theoretical literature (theories, model, constructs, concepts) about those themes, and empirical literature (studies) regarding those themes, in a proper manner. Follow the instructions (see presenting theoretical literature, and presenting empirical literature) in this Review of the Literature section. If you present the literature appropriately in this body of the review, then you will have information to present in the Discussion of the Literature. If you don’t, this Review falls apart.Only literature presented in this Review of the Literature can be analyzed in the next section, Discussion of the Literature. You will save a stitch in time, if you follow instructions and learn how to present theories, and how to present studies, including the authors stated limitations and recommendations for future inquiry, in addition to your critique of those studies. †¢ General comments: The theoretical and empirical literature is summarized, analyzed, evaluated, and synthesized in a more in-depth â€Å"coherent† manner within organized headings and sublevel headings. Specifically, information ertaining to theoretical, empirical, methodological, critical review, and case studies about the topic is reported. As reported previously, expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature to present, that is of value and relevant. While many published Review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 â€Å" relevant†, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. This will increase to 50 references in the qualifying paper.It certainly isn’t unusual to have over 100 references in a dissertation. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from â€Å"consulting firms† or firms that are â€Å"promoting† their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. As you present literature in your â€Å"word† document, it is okay to talk to yourself. Make notes in the document to your self. You can use different font colors or highlights for these messages to yourself. o Perhaps you want to leave a message to yourself to review a particular article that you didn’t yet have the chance to review, or o you want to search another theme. Or you read an article, but didn’t have a chance yet to write about it – jot down notes o Use the word file as a tool where you keep all information in one place. You will find this technique very helpful in developing the qualifying paper, and in developing the your dissertation. The instructor does not mind (and in fact encourages you do to this, even in final copies0. Just make the messages â€Å"neat† – and not to distracting) Of utmost importance, is that you present your review appropriately. Practice doing it correctly immediately or you will be WASTING time (having to redo it later). Your review must be organized within the headings/sublevel headings. Insert the outline developed in the Introduction to the Review. Make sure that the outline is consistent with the organization of themes, concepts add theories in your literature map. †¢ It is ok if you reorganize or rename the themes, but make the changes if the Organization of the R (and literature map, in the prior section). You want the Introduction to the Review, Review of the Literature, and the Discussion section all to be â€Å"internally consistent† wi th one another. †¢ Instructions follow on how to present CRITICALLY present, theoretical and empirical literature.FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS. Quotations and Paraphrasing and Critical Analysis †¢ This is a literature review, and not your opinion. Almost all of what you say is referenced, except when you are introducing themes and concepts, and critiquing the theoretical or empirical literature (using appropriate criteria – which is explained later †¢ Reminder: Make sure that you adhere to ethical responsibilities of providing accurate information and communicate effectively. Include â€Å"quote marks† for information that is word for word from another literature source follow APA for (Author, year, p. x). For information that is paraphrased, reference the source as (Author, year). †¢ Whether you are referencing a quote or paraphrased information, NOTE THE LOCATION OF THE â€Å"PERIOD†. IT IS NOT BEFORE THE PARENTHESES BUT AFTER. †¢ Do not copy any material that is word for word or paraphrase without citing sources. †¢ Limit your quotations. We do not want a â€Å"summary† or â€Å"copy† of the literature. †¢ You cannot present a â€Å"string of quotes†. (Quote after quote after quote). IMPORTANT: If you paraphrase as you write (it must truly be paraphrasing), cite the (author(s), year. A good way to make sure that you paraphrase is to: †¢ Read material Move the material away from your eyesight †¢ Write out what you recall. †¢ Note: Paraphrasing is not changing the order of words. †¢ Review the Required Information Literacy Tutorial which discusses plagiarism. Review the following URLs about Plagiarism, Student Writing, Citing Sources, and Paraphrasing (IMPORTANT to Review) Plagiarism and Student Writing Paraphrasing, citing sources, use of quotations, plagiarism: http://www. ipl. org/div/aplus/linkciting. htm http://depts. washington. edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/plag1. pd f http://www. hamilton. du/academics/resource/wc/usingsources. html †¢ REFERENCE list and BIBLIOGRAPHY list o Add the complete bibliographic citation of the article you reviewed to your REFERENCE list in appropriate APA format. Don’t wait until the end when the report is due. This is often one of the worst problems, â€Å"trying to find references†. o REFERENCE list – This contains all literature â€Å"referenced in your paper. o BIBLIOGRAPHY list – This contains all literature reviewed, but NOT referenced in your paper. o If you review literature, but don’t reference it â€Å"immediately† in your paper, place it on your BIBLIOGRAPHY.If you eventually reference in your paper, all you need to do is to cut and paste from the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, to the REFERENCE list. o Literature reviewed is placed on either the REFERENCE or the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, NOT BOTH! Organization of the Review of the Literature †¢ There are no sublevel heading s given to you in the template. †¢ The concepts and themes in your literature map AND THE OUTLINE serve as the basis to organize this section. BE CONSISTENT. Insert for draft 1. o Use your literature map and evolving outline to organize these sublevel headings (subtitles) of the literature review.Remember that the concepts and themes in your literature map are theoretical in nature. Thus, in developing the Review, present the concepts and themes conceptually first followed by empirical studies that support or do not support the theoretical formulations. (see guidelines that follow for presenting theoretical and empirical literature) o Follow the organization that you described. If you alter the organization, concepts and themes in this part of the review, go back to the introduction and make the corresponding changes (in the introduction – organization, map, and outline). APA: Organize in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. Use frequent APA level subheadings to con nect main ideas and topics covered in a logical sequence (see APA publication manual for examples, pp. 111-113). The main ideas are concepts and sub-concepts in your literature map. The template for this paper uses five levels of headings (depicted on APA p. 113). The rationale for five level headings is that you may continue with this Review as your qualifying paper and but more importantly, it may become part of the Second Chapter of a Dissertation (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE). See p. 13 of APA First Idea, Theme, or Topic (Second Level APA heading, centered italics) First Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA, Left Italics) Related Subconcept or theme (Fourth Level APA, indent ? inch, italics, lower case, end with period). Related Subconcept or theme. Second Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Idea and Topic First Subconcept or Theme Related to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Subconcept or Theme R elated to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) An example follows (next page)Example to organize the review: for the topic the influence of organizational leadership on organizational performance (organized with appropriate APA level headings), and which follow the topical outline presented in the organization of the review (see Introduction to the Literature). Note there are 4 major themes (centered, italics) to organize this review. †¢ In the presentation of the literature review, the first two themes (Leadership and Organizational Performance) would contain â€Å"rich† theory. Who developed the theories, when? how are the concepts in the theories defined?What are the propositions in the theories (statements of relationships), and have propositions in the theories been tested in empirical studies. (See presentation of theoretical literature – and internal and external criticism) †¢ The second two themes Factors Influencing Organizational Performance and Leadership and Performance of Organizations would primarily focus on empirical studies that test the propositions in theories. (See presentation of empirical literature Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders Leadership, Power and Influence Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership PracticeCultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational climate. Individual performance. Team performance. Supplier/vendor perspectives. Customer satisfaction. Financial performance. Effectiveness indicators. Performance Driven Organizations Competency modeling. Managing performance. 360 degree feedback. Collaborative change. Organizational Performance Measurement Output (activities) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.Output (activities) measures in service and product organizations. Outcome (results) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Outcome (results) measures in service and product organizations. Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational culture, and Organizational effectiveness IMPORTANT: Presenting theoretical literature and empirical literature following these guidelines.THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE MUST to understand and apply General Comments Literature reported in the Introduction of this critical analysis (should be very little), but ANY LITERATURE DISCUSSED IN THE INTRODUCTION must also be discussed here in the Review of the Literature – in depth, and linked with the appropriate concept (subtitle). †¢ Present clearly to let the reader know if you are presenting a theory about something (theoretical literature) or a study about something (empirical literature, empirical study, research study). When you don’t use the term â€Å"study about†, it is generally assumed that you are speaking of someone’s theory. The critical analysis review distinguishes between an author’s theorizing or suggesting (author’s interpretations) versus author’s research findings (testing theories). †¢ Always introduce the type of literature you are reporting such as: theoretical literature, empirical literature. For empirical literature, specify the type of study. This information is usually found in the abstract of the article. For empirical literature introduce as: i. Empirical – Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed ii. Empirical – Methodological iii. Empirical – Experimental, non-experimental; case study, historical, etc. v. Empirical – Descriptive, exploratory, predictive, expl anatory, Reporting Theoretical Literature (IMPORTANT) Kerlinger (1973) presented a helpful definition of a theory that has â€Å"withstood† time. A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts, definitions and propositions) that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among the variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena. Immanuel Kant provided this famous quote: â€Å"Experience without theory is blind but theory without experience is mere intellectual play† http://www. oop. uvic. ca/ArwrCoop/stuprepoverheads/1_Orientation/tsld003. htm Criteria that can be used to evaluate theories including theoretical frameworks, conceptual models or conceptual frameworks may be organized into internal and external criticism. a. Internal Criticism (of theories) 1. Semantics (Meaning – or definition – given to the elements such as concepts, constructs, variables): Semantics evaluates Clarity, Consistency, Corresponde nce between theoretical and operational definitions, and intersubjectivity (which is whether similar meanings are used by other scholars). . Syntax: (Logical Structure and Relationships Between the Elements) 1. What are the types of statements (propositions)? laws, postulates, theorems, principles, hypotheses, assumptions, empirical generalizations 2. What are the types of relationships: Time ordered, probabilities, conditional, causal, or concurrent? 3. What are the signs of the relationships? : position; inverse (negative) 4. Note: It is the propositions that are tested in theories, reformulated as hypotheses. 3.Method of Theory Development (What is the method used in theory building – 1. Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) 2. Patterns: Is there a schematic model depicting the relationships between the concepts? If not, can you diagram the pattern of relationships bet ween the key concepts? 3. Level of theory development: What kinds of outcomes are produced from the theory – (knowledge, principles, solutions, problems)? a.Conceptual framework (definitions only), model (shows relationships between the concepts), and/or a theory (well developed propositions, well linked together, with evidence of empirical support? ) b. Is it Descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, predictive, prescriptive b. External Criticism of a Theory 1. Social Significance: 1. Value to society; theory addresses essential issues in the discipline; 2. Lends itself to further research 3. Efficacy of the theory over another in achieving desired outcomes 2. Social Utility: 1.Pragmatic Adequacy: Is it useful? Does it contribute to understanding? Does it generate new knowledge, provide direction to in professional practice, research, education (pertinent to your topic)? 2. Scope: Is it narrow or broad? What is the degree of generality or abstractness and how does this affect i s usefulness (pertinent to your topic)? 3. Complexity/Parsimony: 1. Does it explanation and interrelated many variables? 2. Could a simpler theory achieve the same purpose (parsimonious)? 4. Discrimination: 1. Can the theory be applied to more than one discipline, or is it unique to one discipline? . If it is borrowed from another discipline, are boundary lines demarcated? (example –a variety of disciplines use systems theory) 5. Empirical Validity 1. Does empirical evidence support the theory? Cite some studies. (Is there congruence between theoretical claims and empirical evidence? ) 2. Do results indicate confirmation, verification, support corroboration, or disconfirmation, failure to support the theory? 6. Social Congruence: 1. Does the theory fit with reality? 2. Is it accepted by society? a.When you are reporting theoretical literature, select criteria from the internal and external critical approaches to adequately address your description. Present theories systematic ally: YOU MUST DO THIS FOR ALL THEORETICAL LITERATURE. 1. First provide a good description of what the author stated about the theory, model, framework, construct or concept. –Example: 1. Introduce the title of the book(s) or theoretical article(s) in your own words which describes the theory (not studies). Next: 2. Begin with the internal critical analysis: a.Report the major concepts and constructs and how these are defined by the author (Semantics) b. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. c. Does the author explain how was the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) d. Explain how patterns of relationships between the concepts are explained: Is there a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts? . Secondly, report what the theorist (or other authors) stated about the Ext ernal critical review: Social Significance (important), Complexity/Parsimony-simple, Discrimination, Empirical Validity (important) and Social Congruence. It is extremely important that you indicate what the author said about empirical validity: Do they report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations? When presenting classic or recent theories pertinent to your topic, you may certainly describe the theory, but also describe the work done to test those theories. 2.Finally, you may provide your critique comments to the above – ie what needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved? Can you see the linkages between the theory, practice, and research? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: â€Å"How do we use these models and theories in practice? † Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theori es) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions.Reporting Empirical Studies (Critical! ) – Review the Instructions (you should be familiar with the information based on your critique – consult the worksheets for questions) Reporting methodological studies, you may follow the empirical approach. But focus on: the method being proposed – what method is being targeted? Is it a design? A different sampling approach? Is it a method to measure concepts? Introduce the study title (in your own words), the purpose, and present as above. Reporting Case studies may include use of prior data, or secondary analysis of data for a new study.It may also include a single subject or single organization if a case study. You may follow the above empirical approach is presenting– but be quite clear in presenting whether the authors are using someone else’s data or their own or a single subject or organizational design. Reporting Review Article s (Critical Analysis of the Literature, or Meta-analysis). First Describe what the author said: Introduce the title (in your own words). Describe the purpose of the review and its scope, including the library research plan used to obtain the literature.What sources of information were used (literature, observations)? Present the results, conclusions and future areas of inquiry needed (example: future studies) as reported by the author. Secondly, discuss your critique of the article. Note: Meta-Analyses conduct statistical analysis of other studies (analysis of analyses) General Pointers †¢ Important Note: It is so critical for you to get in the habit, very early on in this process, of presenting theoretical and empirical literature appropriately and systematically.If you do, you will find it easy to develop a nice state of the art of the literature, formulate interpretations, identify important gaps, develop conclusions, and generate recommendations for future study (which is p resented in the Discussion section of this report). That is your path toward successfully completing this course, moving on toward a successful qualifying paper (whether or not you stay with the topic), and understanding the dissertation. If you don’t present the literature systematically and appropriately, the review falls apart and can’t be completed. So, plan ahead, follow directions, and you will find your path to success!! Generally, related articles and research findings should be presented together (under the appropriate sublevel heading). o Report areas of agreement and disagreement. o Only a little space should be used to report minor studies. As possible, group together minor studies that have similar results, methodologies, strengths and/or weaknesses. †¢ Major empirical studies or seminal writings (theories). It is appropriate to present major studies or seminal writings individually in more detail. †¢ As you write, you will need to integrate and synthesize the results in some logical manner. You don’t need to report everything that you read! When reading and evaluating the research studies for possible inclusion in your review, determine the relevance, worth and significance of studies to your topic. †¢ While you initially identified some topic, theme, or point that you wanted to develop, you may find that a new or different theme is evolving not initially considered. This may be a reformulation of your topic. If you have questions if this arises, contact the instructor. †¢ The review should contain fairly recent work (post 1995, and preferably 2000+). While older information can be relevant, the review should aim to provide current knowledge (a â€Å"state of the art review†). Remember you need to have the â€Å"most recent literature† if it is to be â€Å"state of the art†. o You will find that there are classic studies or theoretical papers repetitively cited in the literature. These are the classic (or seminal) examples of literature in the field. While you would certainly want to refer to these in your review, it would be redundant–and probably irrelevant–for you to review them. It is generally permissible to use secondary sources for some Seminal Literature.Remember that if you do not read the original (primary source) article/theory, but rather you are reporting what someone else says, it is found in a secondary source (use appropriate APA referencing format, as cited in). There should be a limited number of secondary sources in your report. †¢ As you write the Review, you will see that you are generating ideas for the Discussion section- next part – (Interpretations, Conclusions and Recommendations). You can â€Å"jump† to the Discussion as you have further understanding the literature. Do it concurrently while writing this part. You will see that you are summarizing, analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sourc es logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review. You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature and preparing to generate your discussion of conclusions and recommendations! †¢ A good review of the literature is more than simply a summary of the research. It is both a critical evaluation of the existing research and a synthesis of that work. You will need to synthesize the literature in some logical manner. This is a skill that develops with practice.As you write things down, review it to see if you are integrating, evaluating, and synthesizing. Are you identifying opposing views, contradictory findings, and gaps in the literature (what questions are being suggested)? Are you bringing clarity to the issues? These will be clearly presented in the Discussion of the analysis, so lay the foundation in this part of the review. †¢ You will see that you are summarizing, but also analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sources logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review.You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature! 5 â€Å"big† Instructions on Writing the Review of the Literature About†¦ 1. Organization (APA and Level Headings for the Outline) a. Add the topic to the title of this section, Review of the Literature†¦About†¦ b. Organize the Review of the Literature according to your literature map and topical outline. Use APA level headings to organize the review in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. c. Present related theoretical literature and research findings together. d. Organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature needs to be highly evident! . The first draft (week 3), at the minimum should contain 1a and b above, and some literature presented as possible. Draft 2 should have this part of the paper nearly complete. 1. Co ntent and Quality of Theoretical Literature: IMPORTANT: Present the theoretical literature systematically and appropriately. Follow these steps responding to a-d a. Introduce the name or title of the theory, model, framework, construct. Do this for each major theory, construct, or concept in your topical outline (sublevel headings). b. Internal critical analysis (what the author(s) say): 1.For each theory, name the major concepts and constructs that organize the theory, and provide the definitions by the author (Semantics) 2. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. 3. Report if the author of the theory provides a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts. 4. Optional: How does the author explain the way the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach c.External critical analysis report what the theorist (or other authors) state about theory – Review Lecture notes on these items 1. Social Significance (importance) 2. Social Utility 3. Complexity/Parsimony 4. Discrimination 5. Empirical Validity (Do the author(s) report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations) 6. Social Congruence d. Provide Your critique comments to the above: What needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved?How are linkages between the theory, practice, and research described in the literature? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: â€Å"How do we use these models and theories in practice? † Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theories) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions about the quality of the theory. INSTRUCTIONS ALSO CONTINUED – NEXT PAGE Example Combi ning 2a, b, c and d (presenting theoretical literature):In 1984, Jones introduced his seminal theory of ______________ (based on his qualitative, phenomenological studies about___ (as cited in Smith, 2004). This theory identifies 3 major constructs ____________ defined as ___. The major propositions in this theory are ________ (as cited in Smith, 2004). In the last 20 years, the theory has been revised and adapted to ___ by ____. Several empirical studies by ___, led to refinement in the theory. Brown (2000) developed a schematic model depicting these direct and indirect relationships among concepts, which continues to be examined today (Smith, 2004).This theory is socially significant addressing essential issues about ___ in the discipline of ___, and is useful in explaining, predicting, and discriminating among those with ___ and those without ___. Thus it is a well-developed guide to ___. The theory has a good balance between simplicity and complexity, contributing to its usefuln ess. Studies by __ verify the propositions of __. The major proposition with conflicting results in empirical studies is ___. The theory has been adapted to ___ situations and __ populations. This is the predominant theory used to examine ____ with well-developed propositions and strong empirical support.Competing theories are ___ (cite reference). You would then present these competing theories next.. 3. Content and Quality of Empirical Literature: IMPORTANT: Presents the empirical literature (including scientific investigations, case studies, methodological studies, secondary analyses, meta-analyses) systematically and appropriately, following these guidelines!! :)) a. Introduce the study title (paraphrased – in your own words –and the â€Å"general† design (in one sentence) b. Explain the purpose of the study is †¦.And link with paraphrased research questions and hypotheses (these can be abbreviated or paraphrased – not word for word – be b rief) c. Discuss the quality of the literature review presented by the author and the theories and concepts (or propositions) tested (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed; and experimental, or not experimental design) d. Be explicit in reporting the specific research design for the qualitative, quantitative, or mixed study) and o Non-Experimental – descriptive, exploratory (cross-sectional, longitudinal, predictive, etc) o Type of Experimental including type of design. . Describe the sampling method (whether or not it was probability or non-probability sampling), the specific type of sampling, the sample size and characteristics of the sample. f. Present the methods of data collection (how were each of the variables are measured-instrumentation), and provide reports of reliability and validity of quantitative the tools/measures and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. This is very important, as you will begin to see how the concepts of interest, are measured. Be fairly explic it in describing these tools. Include the names of these data collection tools. g.Other procedures (data collection procedures and ethical considerations) h. Present the results – study findings (including hypotheses supported/not-supported), research questions answered? – Don’t restate these word for word – present in an abbreviated or paraphrased manner. i. Very important is to present the â€Å"author’s† (not your) Discussion. The discussion must include the author’s important: o Interpretations o Implications (applications for practice) o Conclusions o Limitations o Recommendations (of utmost importance, are the author’s recommendations for future areas of inquiry, example: future studies).Include this j. Discuss your critique of the article (Introduction, Literature/Theory, Methods, Results, Discussion). Select IMPORTANT POINTS. Based on your summarizing the article, you can now identify strengths and weakness, and areas n eeding improvement. You can do this as you describe the study or at the end of your description of the study. Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major studies) so that readers have enough information to weigh the results and draw their own Remember that the â€Å"critical analysis of the literature† is not a mere summary (descriptive). onclusions. It is interpretative and evaluative of an area of inquiry of scholarly work. INSTRUCTIONS CONTINUED Example follows: USE YOUR CRITIQUE WORKSHEETS AS AN AID IN DEVELOPING THE PRESENTATION FOR EACH OF THE STUDIES. Example Presenting Empirical Literature – Combining 3a -j above: – Smith (2004) conducted a study about †¦.. He used a non-experimental, causal comparative, quantitative design, of __ (sample-population). Smith’s literature review was thorough, current and ___ in comparing and contrasting theories about ____.Empirical studies of ___ were examined, leading to the ma jor gap and conflict in the literature about_________. This resulted in Smith’s study testing the proposition of †¦.. developed in 1998 by Jones (as cited in Smith, 2004). A non-prob